The search for transparent battery cathodes primarily focuses on patterned electrodes with feature sizes below the optical absorption limit. This significantly limits the electrode capacity, as a large electrode area remains unused to maintain transparency. Herein, we report transparent olivine LiFe0.77Mn0.23PO4 thin-film electrodes discovered through high-throughput continuous-composition-spread sputtering. After investigating six different Mn doping ratios, we found the optimal Mn-doped olivine composition with an enhanced discharge capacity of 45.7 μA h/cm2∙μm without using excessive nanosized features or carbon coating. The thin-film electrode exhibits a clear redox activity for both Fe3+/2+ and Mn3+/2+, resulting in an enhanced average voltage over LiFePO4 composition. A 250-nm-thick film exhibits an optical transmittance of over 80% in the visible region. The results in this study demonstrates that transparent cathode thin films can be developed based on phospho-olivines via doping strategies with high-throughput continuous-composition-spread sputtering methods.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by the Korea Institute of Science and Technology Future Resource Program (2E29400).
This research was supported by the Korea Institute of Science and Technology Future Resource Program ( 2E29400 ).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering