Carbonaceous Anode Materials for Non-aqueous Sodium- And Potassium-Ion Hybrid Capacitors

Shude Liu, Ling Kang, Jian Zhang, Seong Chan Jun, Yusuke Yamauchi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

75 Citations (Scopus)


Sodium- and potassium-ion (Na-/K-ion) hybrid capacitors are promising electrochemical energy storage systems that are more cost-effective than corresponding lithium-based alternatives. Their hybrid configuration integrates a battery-type anode and a capacitor-type cathode and affords high energy density, high power density, and good cycling stability. However, the primary issue encountered in Na-/K-ion hybrid capacitors is a lack of reliable anodes because of the sluggish reaction kinetics of large Na-/K-ions. In recent years, significant advancements have been achieved in carbonaceous anodes because of their high Na-/K-ion storage feasibility, natural abundance, low cost, and non-toxicity. This review encompasses the fundamental electrochemical principles of Na-/K-ion hybrid capacitors and provides insights into the intimate structure-performance relationship of carbonaceous anodes. The existing challenges and alternative strategies for improving the electrochemical performance of the carbonaceous anodes are emphasized. Finally, future prospects and possible directions for further improving carbonaceous anodes for Na-/K-ion hybrid capacitors are presented.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4127-4154
Number of pages28
JournalACS Energy Letters
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Nov 12

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Australian National Fabrication Facility’s Queensland Node (ANFF-Q), and the JST-ERATO Yamauchi Materials Space-Tectonics Project (JPMJER2003). S. Liu and S.C. Jun gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the national research foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MIST) (No. NRF-2019R1A2C2090443), Korea Electric Power Corporation (Grant No. R19XO01-23), and Nano·Material Technology Development Program (NRF-2017M3A7B4041987).

Publisher Copyright:

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Materials Chemistry


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