In ischemic human hearts, the induction of adenosine receptor A2B (ADORA2B) is associated with cardioprotection against ischemic heart damage, but the mechanism underlying this association remains unclear. Apaf-1-interacting protein (APIP) and ADORA2B transcript levels in human hearts are substantially higher in patients with heart failure than in controls. Interestingly, the APIP and ADORA2B mRNA levels are highly correlated with each other (R = 0.912). APIP expression was significantly increased in primary neonatal cardiomyocytes under hypoxic conditions and this induction reduced myocardial cell death via the activation of the AKT-HIF1α pathway. Accordingly, infarct sizes of APIP transgenic mice after left anterior descending artery ligation were significantly reduced compared to those of wild-type mice. Strikingly, knockdown of APIP expression impaired the cytoprotective effects of ADORA2B during hypoxic damage. Immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assays revealed that APIP interacts with ADORA2B, leading to the stabilization of both proteins by interfering with lysosomal degradation, and to the activation of the downstream PKA-CREB signaling pathways. ADORA2B levels in the hearts of APIPTg/Tg, APIPTg/+, and Apip+/- mice were proportionally downregulated. In addition, ADORA2B D296G derived from the rs200741295 polymorphism failed to bind to APIP and did not exert cardioprotective activity during hypoxia. Moreover, Adora2b D296G knock-in mice were more vulnerable than control mice to myocardial infarction and intentional increases in APIP levels overcame the defective protection of the ADORA2B SNP against ischemic injury. Collectively, APIP is crucial for cardioprotection against myocardial infarction by virtue of binding to and stabilizing ADORA2B, thereby dampening ischemic heart injury.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The human blood samples were provided by the Chungbuk National University Hospital Human Biobank and Seoul National University Hospital Human Biobank, a member of the Korea Biobank Network, which is supported by the Ministry of Health and Welfare. All samples were provided with informed consent under institutional review board-approved protocols. This work was supported by a Global Research Laboratory grant (NRF-2010-00341) and a Bio & Medical Technology Development Program of the National Research Foundation (NRF-2017M3A9G7073521) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Korea.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
- Cell Biology
- Cancer Research