While bone marrow (BM)-derived cells have been comprehensively studied for their propitious pre-clinical results, clinical trials have shown controversial outcomes. Unlike previously acknowledged, more recent studies have now confirmed that humoral and paracrine effects are the key mechanisms for tissue regeneration and functional recovery, instead of transdifferentiation of BM-derived cells intocardiovascular tissues. The progression of the understanding of BM-derived cells has further led to exploring efficient methods to isolate and obtain, without mobilization, sufficient number of cell populations that would eventually have a higher therapeutic potential. As such, hematopoietic CD31+ cells, prevalent in both bone marrow and peripheral blood, have been discovered, in recent studies, to have angiogenic and vasculogenic activities and to show strong potential for therapeutic neovascularization in ischemic tissues. This article will discuss recent advancement on BM-derived cell therapy and the implication of newly discovered CD31+ cells.
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