Cardiovascular risk assessment tools in Asia

Yuqing Zhang, Huanhuan Miao, Yook Chin Chia, Peera Buranakitjaroen, Saulat Siddique, Jinho Shin, Yuda Turana, Sungha Park, Kelvin Tsoi, Chen Huan Chen, Hao Min Cheng, Yan Li, Huynh Van Minh, Michiaki Nagai, Jennifer Nailes, Jorge Sison, Arieska Ann Soenarta, Guru Prasad Sogunuru, Apichard Sukonthasarn, Jam Chin TayBoon Wee Teo, Narsingh Verma, Tzung Dau Wang, Satoshi Hoshide, Kazuomi Kario, Jiguang Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is becoming the most important burden to health care systems in most part of the world, especially in Asia. Aiming at identifying high risk individuals and tailoring preventive treatment, many cardiovascular risk assessment tools have been established and most of them were developed in Western countries. However, these cardiovascular risk assessment tools cannot be used interchangeably without recalibration because of the different risk factor profiles (ie, greater absolute burden of hypertension and lower level of total-cholesterol in Asians and higher prevalence of metabolic disorders in South Asians) and different CVD profiles (higher ratio of stroke/coronary heart disease in Asians) between Western and Asian populations. Original risk models such as Prediction for ASCVD Risk in China (China-PAR) and Japan Arteriosclerosis Longitudinal Study (JALS) score have been developed and well validated for specific countries, while most of countries/regions in Asia are using established models. Due to higher incidence of stroke in Asians, risk factors like hypertension should weigh more in cardiovascular risk assessment comparing with Western populations, but their actual proportions should be based on CVD profiles in specific countries/regions. The authors encourage the development of new cardiovascular risk assessment tools for Asians, if possible. Still, modifying established models with native epidemiological data of risk factor as well as CVD is acceptable in regions where health care resources are insufficient.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)369-377
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Clinical Hypertension
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Apr

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was supported by Capital Medical Development Research Fund, Beijing, China 2020–2Z‐4037.

Funding Information:
This study was supported by Capital Medical Development Research Fund, Beijing, China 2020?2Z-4037.

Funding Information:
Y Zhang has received research grants from Bayer, Novartis, and Shuanghe; and lecture fees from Bayer, Daiichi Sankyo, Novartis, Pfizer, Sanofi, Servier, and Takeda. J Shin has received honoraria and sponsorship to attend seminars from Daiichi Sankyo, Takeda, Menarini, MSD, Bristol‐Myers Squibb, and Sanofi. K Kario received research grant from A &D Co.; Omron Healthcare Co.; Roche Diagnostics KK; MSD KK; Astellas Pharma Inc; Otsuka Holdings Co.; Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co.; Sanofi KK; Shionogi & Co.; Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho Co.; Daiichi SankyoCo.; Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma Co.; Takeda Pharmaceutical Co.; Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Co.; Teijin Pharma; Boehringer Ingelheim Japan Inc; Pfizer Japan Inc; and Fukuda Denshi Co. S Siddique has received honoraria from Bayer, GlaxoSmithKline, Pfizer, ICI, and Servier; and travel, accommodation, and conference registration support from Atco Pharmaceutical, Highnoon Laboratories, Horizon Pharma, ICI, and Pfizer. Y‐C Chia has received honoraria and sponsorship to attend conferences and CME seminars from Abbott, Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, GlaxoSmithKline, Menarini, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Novartis, Orient Europharma, Pfizer, and Sanofi; and a research grant from Pfizer. C‐H Chen has received honoraria as a member of a speaker's bureau for Pfizer. J Sison has received honoraria from Pfizer, AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, and Novartis. GP Sogunuru has received a research grant related to hypertension monitoring and treatment from Pfizer. JC Tay has received advisory board and consultant honoraria from Pfizer. JG Wang has received research grants from Bayer, Pfizer, and Phillips; and lecture and consulting fees from Bayer, Daiichi‐Sankyo, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Pfizer, Sanofi, and Servier. All other authors report no potential conflicts of interest in relation to this article.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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