Cardiovascular Risk of Isolated Systolic or Diastolic Hypertension in Young Adults

Hokyou Lee, Yuichiro Yano, So Mi Jemma Cho, Jong Heon Park, Sungha Park, Donald M. Lloyd-Jones, Hyeon Chang Kim

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79 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Little is known regarding health outcomes associated with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH), or systolic and diastolic hypertension (SDH) among young adults with stage 1 hypertension, defined using the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association blood pressure (BP) guideline. Methods: From a nationwide health screening database, we included 6 424 090 participants, aged 20 to 39 years, who were not taking antihypertensive medication at the baseline examination in 2003 to 2007. Participants were categorized as having normal BP (untreated systolic BP [SBP] <120/diastolic BP [DBP] <80 mm Hg; n=2 665 310); elevated BP (SBP 120-129/DBP <80 mm Hg; n=705 344); stage 1 IDH (SBP <130/DBP 80-89 mm Hg; n=1 271 505); stage 1 ISH (SBP 130-139/DBP <80 mm Hg; n=255 588); stage 1 SDH (SBP 130-139/DBP 80-89 mm Hg; n=711 503); and stage 2 hypertension (SBP ≥140, DBP ≥90 mm Hg; n=814 840). The primary outcome was composite cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, including myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, and CVD-related death. Results: The median age of the participants was 30 years and 60.9% were male. Over a median follow-up of 13.2 years, 44 070 new CVD events occurred. With normal BP as the reference, multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% CIs) for CVD events were 1.14 (1.09-1.18) for elevated BP, 1.32 (1.28-1.36) for stage 1 IDH, 1.36 (1.29-1.43) for stage 1 ISH, 1.67 (1.61-1.72) for stage 1 SDH, and 2.40 (2.33-2.47) for stage 2 hypertension. Conclusions: Among young adults, stage 1 ISH, IDH, and SDH were all associated with higher CVD risks than normal BP. The CVD risks of stage 1 ISH and IDH were similar to each other but lower than the risk of stage 1 SDH. Categorizing young adults with stage 1 hypertension further into stage 1 ISH, IDH, and SDH may improve risk stratification for identifying high-risk individuals.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1778-1786
Number of pages9
Issue number22
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Jun 2

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported in part by a grant of the Korea Health Technology R&D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHI-DI), funded by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Republic of Korea (grant HI13C0715). Dr Lee was supported by the Physician-Scientist Fellowship Program, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. All rights reserved.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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