Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is an effective method for the conversion of biomass into biofuel involving moderate temperature and high pressure. However, the yield and quality of bio-oil are not sufficient for commercialization under normal HTL conditions. In this regard, the review emphasizes the need to select the appropriate catalyst for achieving high bio-oil yields with improved quality. Besides, the factors influencing the catalytic HTL, including the types of catalyst used in HTL, the mechanism of catalytic-HTL reaction, the effect of the catalyst on other HTL products including biochar, aqueous phase extracts, and gas, are discussed in detail. This review also summarizes by mentioning the barriers to be overcome in catalytic HTL by focusing on promising approaches.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors are thankful to the Ministry of Science and Technology-Taiwan ( MOST107-2113-M-037-007-MY2 ), and NSYSU-KMU collaboration research project (109KN007)-Taiwan for research grant supports. This work was also financially supported by the Research Center for Environmental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan from The Featured Areas Research Center Program within the framework of the ‘Higher Education Sprout Project’ by the Ministry of Education (MOE) in Taiwan. This study is supported partially by Kaohsiung Medical University Research Center Grant (KMU-TC108A01). The authors are thankful to Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering – Sriperumpudur, India, for supporting the work.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Chemical Engineering(all)
- Fuel Technology
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Organic Chemistry