In a meta-analysis of individual patient data from 5 randomized controlled trials, endovascular treatment (EVT) mainly using a stent retriever achieved successful recanalization in 71.1% of patients suffering from acute stroke due to anterior circulation large artery occlusion (LAO). However, EVT still failed in 28.9% of LAO cases in those 5 successful trials. Stent retriever failure may occur due to anatomical challenges (e.g., a tortuous arterial tree from the aortic arch to a target occlusion site), a large quantity of clots, tandem occlusion, clot characteristics (fresh versus organized clots), different pathomechanisms (embolic versus non-embolic occlusion), etc. Given that recanalization success is the most important factor in the neurological outcome of acute stroke patients, it is important to seek solutions for such difficult cases. In this review, the basic technique of EVT is briefly summarized and then various difficult cases with diverse conditions are discussed along with suggested solutions.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Clinical Neurology
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine