Objective: To compare the cephalometric characteristics of children with Class III malocclusion to those of children with normal occlusion during the deciduous dentition phase. Materials and Methods: Cephalometric measurements of 27 children (mean age:5.03 years) diagnosed with Class III malocclusion were compared with 32 children (mean age:4.85 years) diagnosed with normal occlusion in the following four categories: sagittal skeletal analysis, vertical skeletal analysis, dentoalveolar analysis, and soft tissue analysis. Results: Significant differences were seen in all categories except vertical skeletal analysis. Sagittal skeletal measurements included ANB (Class III group: -0.91 ± 1.60;normal group:5.28 ± 1.29), facial convexity (Class III group:0.47 ± 4.32; normal group:13.65 ± 3.44), Wits appraisal (Class III group: -5.54 ± 2.36; normal group: -0.84 ± 1.91), and A to N-perpendicular (Class III group: -2.94 ± 3.05; normal group:0.78 ± 2.53). Dentoalveolar measurements included U1 to NA (Class III group:11.98 ± 5.25; normal group:8.12 ± 5.43), IMPA (Class III group:81.34 ± 7.40; normal group:86.57 ± 5.67), and interincisal angle (Class III group:152.65 ± 8.82; normal group:145.03 ± 7.34). Soft tissue measurements included soft tissue convexity (Class III group:2.47 ± 4.20; normal group:12.71 ± 3.95), nasofacial angle (Class III group:22.68 ± 4.22; normal group:26.24 ± 3.84), and upper lip to esthetic plane (Class III group: -0.65 ± 2.74; normal group:3.07 ± 1.90). Conclusions: There are significant differences between the craniofacial patterns of normal children and those of children with Class III malocclusion that can be identified with cephalometric analysis as early as the deciduous dentition phase.
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