Cerebral microbleeds and stroke risk after ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack: a pooled analysis of individual patient data from cohort studies

Duncan Wilson, Gareth Ambler, Keon Joo Lee, Jae Sung Lim, Masayuki Shiozawa, Masatoshi Koga, Linxin Li, Caroline Lovelock, Hugues Chabriat, Michael Hennerici, Yuen Kwun Wong, Henry Ka Fung Mak, Luis Prats-Sánchez, Alejandro Martínez-Domeño, Shigeru Inamura, Kazuhisa Yoshifuji, Ethem Murat Arsava, Solveig Horstmann, Jan Purrucker, Bonnie Yin Ka LamAdrian Wong, Young Dae Kim, Tae Jin Song, Maarten Schrooten, Robin Lemmens, Sebastian Eppinger, Thomas Gattringer, Ender Uysal, Zeynep Tanriverdi, Natan M. Bornstein, Einor Ben Assayag, Hen Hallevi, Jun Tanaka, Hideo Hara, Shelagh B. Coutts, Lisa Hert, Alexandros Polymeris, David J. Seiffge, Philippe Lyrer, Ale Algra, Jaap Kappelle, Rustam Al-Shahi Salman, Hans R. Jäger, Gregory Y.H. Lip, Heinrich P. Mattle, Leonidas D. Panos, Jean Louis Mas, Laurence Legrand, Christopher Karayiannis, Thanh Phan, Sarah Gunkel, Nicolas Christ, Jill Abrigo, Thomas Leung, Winnie Chu, Francesca Chappell, Stephen Makin, Derek Hayden, David J. Williams, M. Eline Kooi, Dianne H.K. van Dam-Nolen, Carmen Barbato, Simone Browning, Kim Wiegertjes, Anil M. Tuladhar, Noortje Maaijwee, Christine Guevarra, Chathuri Yatawara, Anne Marie Mendyk, Christine Delmaire, Sebastian Köhler, Robert van Oostenbrugge, Ying Zhou, Chao Xu, Saima Hilal, Bibek Gyanwali, Christopher Chen, Min Lou, Julie Staals, Régis Bordet, Nagaendran Kandiah, Frank Erik de Leeuw, Robert Simister, Aad van der Lugt, Peter J. Kelly, Joanna M. Wardlaw, Yannie Soo, Felix Fluri, Velandai Srikanth, David Calvet, Simon Jung, Vincent I.H. Kwa, Stefan T. Engelter, Nils Peters, Eric E. Smith, Yusuke Yakushiji, Dilek Necioglu Orken, Franz Fazekas, Vincent Thijs, Ji Hoe Heo, Vincent Mok, Roland Veltkamp, Hakan Ay, Toshio Imaizumi, Beatriz Gomez-Anson, Kui Kai Lau, Eric Jouvent, Peter M. Rothwell, Kazunori Toyoda, Hee Joon Bae, Joan Marti-Fabregas, David J. Werring, Kirsty Harkness, Louise Shaw, Jane Sword, Azlisham Mohd Nor, Pankaj Sharma, Deborah Kelly, Frances Harrington, Marc Randall, Matthew Smith, Karim Mahawish, Abduelbaset Elmarim, Bernard Esisi, Claire Cullen, Arumug Nallasivam, Christopher Price, Adrian Barry, Christine Roffe, John Coyle, Ahamad Hassan, Jonathan Birns, David Cohen, Lakshmanan Sekaran, Adrian Parry-Jones, Anthea Parry, David Hargroves, Harald Proschel, Prabel Datta, Khaled Darawil, Aravindakshan Manoj, Mathew Burn, Chris Patterson, Elio Giallombardo, Nigel Smyth, Syed Mansoor, Ijaz Anwar, Rachel Marsh, Sissi Ispoglou, Dinesh Chadha, Mathuri Prabhakaran, Sanjeevikumar Meenakishundaram, Janice O'Connell, Jon Scott, Vinodh Krishnamurthy, Prasanna Aghoram, Michael McCormick, Nikola Sprigg, Paul O'Mahony, Martin Cooper, Lillian Choy, Peter Wilkinson, Simon Leach, Sarah Caine, Ilse Burger, Gunaratam Gunathilagan, Paul Guyler, Hedley Emsley, Michelle Davis, Dulka Manawadu, Kath Pasco, Maam Mamun, Robert Luder, Mahmud Sajid, James Okwera, Elizabeth Warburton, Kari Saastamoinen, Timothy England, Janet Putterill, Enrico Flossman, Michael Power, Krishna Dani, David Mangion, Appu Suman, John Corrigan, Enas Lawrence, Djamil Vahidassr, Clare Shakeshaft, Martin Brown, Andreas Charidimou, Hannah Cohen, Gargi Banerjee, Henry Houlden, Mark White, Tarek Yousry, Enrico Flossmann, Keith Muir, Marwan El-Koussy, Pascal Gratz, Jeremy Molad, Amos Korczyn, Efrat Kliper, Philippe Maeder, Achim Gass, Chahin Pachai, Luc Bracoub, Marie Yvonne Douste-Blazy, Marie Dominique Fratacci, Eric Vicaut, Shoichiro Sato, Kaori Miwa, Kyohei Fujita, Toshihiro Ide, Henry Ma, John Ly, Shahoo Singhal, Ronil Chandra, Lee Anne Slater, Cathy Soufan, Christopher Moran, Christopher Traenka, Sebastian Thilemann, Joachim Fladt, Henrik Gensicke, Leo Bonati, Beom Joon Kim, Moon Ku Han, Jihoon Kang, Eunbin Ko, Mi Hwa Yang, Myung Suk Jang, Sean Murphy, Fiona Carty, Layan Akijian, John Thornton, Mark Schembri, Elles Douven, Raquel Delgado-Mederos;, Rebeca Marín, Pol Camps-Renom, Daniel Guisado-Alonso, Fidel Nuñez, Santiago Medrano-Martorell, Elisa Merino, Kotaro Iida, Syuhei Ikeda, Masashi Nishihara, Hiroyuki Irie, Derya Selcuk Demirelli, Jayesh Modi Medanta, Charlotte Zerna, Maria Valdés Hernández, Paul Armitage, Anna Heye, Susana Muñoz-Maniega, Eleni Sakka, Michael Thrippleton, Martin Dennis, Ysoline Beigneux, Mauro Silva, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Shu Leung Ho, Raymond Tak Fai Cheung, Koon Ho Chan, Kay Cheong Teo, Edward Hui, Joseph Shiu Kwong Kwan, Richard Chang, Man Yu Tse, Chu Peng Hoi, Chung Yan Chan, Oi Ling Chan, Ryan Hoi Kit Cheung, Edmund Ka Ming Wong, Kam Tat Leung, Suk Fung Tsang, Hing Lung Ip, Sze Ho Ma, Karen Ma, Wing Chi Fong, Siu Hung Li, Richard Li, Ping Wing Ng, Kwok Kui Wong, Wenyan Liu, Lawrence Wong, Lino Ramos, Els De Schryver, Joost Jöbsis, Jaap van der Sande, Paul Brouwers, Yvo Roos, Jan Stam, Stef Bakker, Henk Verbiest, Wouter Schoonewille, Cisca Linn, Leopold Hertzberger, Maarten van Gemert, Paul Berntsen, Jeroen Hendrikse, Paul Nederkoorn, Werner Mess, Peter Koudstaal, Alexander Leff, Nicholas Ward, Parashkev Nachev, Richard Perry, Hatice Ozkan, John Mitchell

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44 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Cerebral microbleeds are a neuroimaging biomarker of stroke risk. A crucial clinical question is whether cerebral microbleeds indicate patients with recent ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack in whom the rate of future intracranial haemorrhage is likely to exceed that of recurrent ischaemic stroke when treated with antithrombotic drugs. We therefore aimed to establish whether a large burden of cerebral microbleeds or particular anatomical patterns of cerebral microbleeds can identify ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack patients at higher absolute risk of intracranial haemorrhage than ischaemic stroke. Methods: We did a pooled analysis of individual patient data from cohort studies in adults with recent ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack. Cohorts were eligible for inclusion if they prospectively recruited adult participants with ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack; included at least 50 participants; collected data on stroke events over at least 3 months follow-up; used an appropriate MRI sequence that is sensitive to magnetic susceptibility; and documented the number and anatomical distribution of cerebral microbleeds reliably using consensus criteria and validated scales. Our prespecified primary outcomes were a composite of any symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage or ischaemic stroke, symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage, and symptomatic ischaemic stroke. We registered this study with the PROSPERO international prospective register of systematic reviews, number CRD42016036602. Findings: Between Jan 1, 1996, and Dec 1, 2018, we identified 344 studies. After exclusions for ineligibility or declined requests for inclusion, 20 322 patients from 38 cohorts (over 35 225 patient-years of follow-up; median 1·34 years [IQR 0·19–2·44]) were included in our analyses. The adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] comparing patients with cerebral microbleeds to those without was 1·35 (95% CI 1·20–1·50) for the composite outcome of intracranial haemorrhage and ischaemic stroke; 2·45 (1·82–3·29) for intracranial haemorrhage and 1·23 (1·08–1·40) for ischaemic stroke. The aHR increased with increasing cerebral microbleed burden for intracranial haemorrhage but this effect was less marked for ischaemic stroke (for five or more cerebral microbleeds, aHR 4·55 [95% CI 3·08–6·72] for intracranial haemorrhage vs 1·47 [1·19–1·80] for ischaemic stroke; for ten or more cerebral microbleeds, aHR 5·52 [3·36–9·05] vs 1·43 [1·07–1·91]; and for ≥20 cerebral microbleeds, aHR 8·61 [4·69–15·81] vs 1·86 [1·23–1·82]). However, irrespective of cerebral microbleed anatomical distribution or burden, the rate of ischaemic stroke exceeded that of intracranial haemorrhage (for ten or more cerebral microbleeds, 64 ischaemic strokes [95% CI 48–84] per 1000 patient-years vs 27 intracranial haemorrhages [17–41] per 1000 patient-years; and for ≥20 cerebral microbleeds, 73 ischaemic strokes [46–108] per 1000 patient-years vs 39 intracranial haemorrhages [21–67] per 1000 patient-years). Interpretation: In patients with recent ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack, cerebral microbleeds are associated with a greater relative hazard (aHR) for subsequent intracranial haemorrhage than for ischaemic stroke, but the absolute risk of ischaemic stroke is higher than that of intracranial haemorrhage, regardless of cerebral microbleed presence, antomical distribution, or burden. Funding: British Heart Foundation and UK Stroke Association.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)653-665
Number of pages13
JournalThe Lancet Neurology
Volume18
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jul

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding for the included cohort studies was provided by the British Heart Foundation, Stroke Association, UCLH National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre, Wellcome Trust, Health Research Board Ireland, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre (Oxford, UK), Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Pfizer Cardiovascular Research award, Basel Stroke Funds, Science Funds Rehabilitation Felix-Platter-Hospital, Neurology Research Pool University Hospital Basel, Bayer AG, Fondo de Investigaciones Sanitarias Instituto de Salud Carlos III (FI12/00296; RETICS INVICTUS PLUS RD16/0019/0010; FEDER), Imperial College London NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Dutch Heart Foundation, Servier, Association de Recherche en Neurologie Vasculaire and RHU TRT_cSVD (ANR-16-RHUS-004), Vidi innovational grant from The Netherlands ZonMw, Chest Heart Stroke Scotland, Medical Research Council, Fondation Leducq, The Row Fogo Charitable Trust, National Institute of Health (USA), Adriana van Rinsum-Ponsen Stichting, Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED), Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (Japan), and National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Health and Medical Research Grant, Singapore National Medical Research Council, and Dutch Heart Foundation.

Funding Information:
MK reports grants from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan, and from the National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center during the conduct of the study; and speaker honoraria from Bayer Yakuhin, Daiichi-Sankyo Company, and Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS)/Pfizer. HC reports participation in the steering committee for a clinical trial supported by Servier and was a consultant for Hovid Inc. EMA reports personal fees from Pfizer, Boehringer Ingelheim, Nutricia, Abbott, and Sanofi, outside the submitted work. JP reports personal fees from Boehringer Ingelheim and Akcea and personal fees and non-financial support from Pfizer outside the submitted work. EBA reports grants from US–Israel Bi-national Science Foundation, The American Federation for Aging Research, and The Israeli Chief Scientist, Ministry of Health, during the conduct of the study. SBC reports grants from the Canadian Institute of Health Research and a Pfizer Cardiovascular award during the conduct of the study. DJS reports other funding from Bayer and from BMS/Pfizer outside the submitted work. PL reports other funding from Daiichi-Sankyo, Bayer, and Boehringer Ingelheim, outside the submitted work. RA-SS reports grants from the British Heart Foundation, The Stroke Association, and Chest Heart & Stroke Scotland outside the submitted work. GYHL reports consultancy for Bayer/Janssen, BMS/Pfizer, Biotronik, Medtronic, Boehringer Ingelheim, Microlife, and Daiichi-Sankyo; and speaker honoraria from Bayer, BMS/Pfizer, Medtronic, Boehringer Ingelheim, Microlife, Roche, and Daiichi-Sankyo. HPM reports personal fees from Neuravi/Cerenovus, Medtronic, Bayer, Daiichi-Sankyo, and Servier outside the submitted work. DH reports grants from University College Dublin Newman Fellowship supported Bayer during the conduct of the study. MEK reports grants from the Center for Translational Molecular Medicine during the conduct of the study. AMT reports grants from the Dutch Heart Foundation during the conduct of the study. AvdL reports grants from the Center for Translation Molecular Medicine and Dutch Heart Foundation during the conduct of the study. JMW reports grants from Wellcome Trust, Chest Heart Stroke Scotland, and Row Fogo Charitable Trust during the conduct of the study. YS reports a grant from Health and Medical Research Fund. VIHK reports grants from the Netherlands Heart Foundation (grant 2001B071) during the conduct of the study. STE reports grants from Daiichi-Sankyo, Bayer, Pfizer, and Swiss Heart Foundation during the conduct of the study; other funding from Daiichi-Sankyo, Mindmaze, and Stago; and grants from the Swiss National Science Foundation outside the submitted work. NP reports other funding from Daiichi-Sankyo, Bayer, and Boehringer Ingelheim outside the submitted work. EES reports personal fees from Portola Pharmaceuticals and Alnylam Pharmaceuticals outside the submitted work. VT reports personal fees and non-financial support from Boehringer Ingelheim and personal fees from Bayer, Pfizer/BMS, and Amgen and Medtronic outside the submitted work. RV reports grants and personal fees from Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, BMS, Daiichi-Sankyo, and Medtronic; and personal fees from Morphosys and Amgen outside the submitted work. HA reports grants from National Institutes of Health during the conduct of the study. PMR reports personal fees from Bayer outside the submitted work. KT reports personal fees from Daiichi-Sankyo, Bayer Yakuhin, BMS, and Nippon Boehringer Ingelheim outside the submitted work. DJWe reports personal fees from Bayer outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Clinical Neurology

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