Characteristics of convectively forced gravity waves are investigated through ensemble numerical simulations for various ideal and real convective storms. For ideal storm cases, single-cell-, multicell-, and supercell-type storms are considered, and for real cases, convection events observed during the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) and in Indonesia are used. For each storm case, wave perturbations and the momentum flux spectrum of convective gravity waves in a control simulation with nonlinearity and cloud microphysical processes are compared with those in quasi-linear dry simulations forced by either diabatic forcing or nonlinear forcing obtained from the control simulation. In any case, gravity waves in the control simulation cannot be represented well by wave perturbations induced by a single forcing. However, when both diabatic and nonlinear forcing terms are considered, the gravity waves and their momentum flux spectrum become comparable to those in the control simulation, because of cancellation between wave perturbations by two forcing terms. These results confirm that the two forcing mechanisms of convective gravity waves proposed by previous studies based on a single convective event can be applied generally to various types of convective storms. This suggests that nonlinear forcing, as well as diabatic forcing, should be considered appropriately in parameterizations of convectively forced gravity waves.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Atmospheric Science