Canopy turbulence plays an important role in mass and energy exchanges at the canopy-atmosphere interface. Despite extensive studies on canopy turbulence over a flat terrain, less attention has been given to canopy turbulence in a complex terrain. The purpose of this study is to scrutinize characteristics of canopy turbulence in roughness sublayer over a hilly forest terrain. We investigated basic turbulence statistics, conditionally sampled statistics, and turbulence spectrum in terms of different atmospheric stabilities, wind direction and vertical structures of momentum fluxes. Similarly to canopy turbulence over a homogeneous terrain, turbulence statistics showed coherent structure. Both quadrant and spectrum analysis corroborated the role of intermittent and energetic eddies with length scale of the order of canopy height, regardless of wind direction except for shift of peak in vertical wind spectrum to relatively high frequency in the down-valley wind. However, the magnitude of the momentum correlation coefficient in a neutral condition was smaller than typical value over a flat terrain. Further scrutiny manifested that, in the up-valley flow, temperature skewness was larger and the contribution of ejection to both momentum and heat fluxes was larger compared to the downvalley flow, indicating that thermal instability and weaker wind shear in up-valley flow asymmetrically affect turbulent transport within the canopy.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Atmospheric Science