Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in slag of fly ash from three municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators were analyzed to observe any changes in characteristics and distribution of their congeners by melting process. Actual concentration and Toxic Equivalent (TEQ) concentration profiles of 17 major congeners of PCDDs/PCDFs for gas, fly ash and melted slag were compared. The distributions of PCDDs/PCDFs in different streams macroscopically showed similarities with the generally known profiles for emission gas from a municipal waste incinerator. The total concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs in off-gas and fly ash have been known to be a function of incineration conditions and of air pollution control device utilization; however, their normalized distributions were independent of such conditions. The concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs in the melted slag of fly ash were not related to the concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs congeners in fly ash but were rather a function of the melting furnace type and operation. The total amount of PCDDs/PCDFs in the melted slag of fly ash contained almost 150-27,000 times less dioxin than that in fly ash, however, the TEQ of dioxin in the slag was reduced by 435-43,500 times, which could enable them to be utilized as recycled construction materials. In normalized TEQ concentration profiles of 17 congeners of PCDDs/PCDFs, the ratio of PCDFs to PCDDs changed from 1.32 to 2.19 by melting, which showed relatively higher portion of furans left in melted slag than those in fly ash. By comparing reduction ratios of different congeners, PCDDs (dioxins) were relatively easier to destruct than PCDFs (furans) during melting process. The most difficult congener to destruct could be octa-chlorinated dibenzofuran (OCDF) among major congeners. For slag cooling methods, dioxin concentration in TEQ of slow cooled slag by air was four times higher than that of fast cooled slag by water. Thus cooling by water is more appropriate with the added beneficial effect of producing granules/particles, which can be utilized as roadbed materials.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work has been sponsored by the Maeji Academic Research Fund and most of analytical works were supported by the Environmental Management Corporation and Sangji Analytical Center for Science Research.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Analytical Chemistry