Purpose: The association between pulmonary vein (PV) dilatation and stroke in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) patients remains unknown.
Materials and Methods: We examined the left atrium (LA) and PV in control (n=138) and non-valvular AF patients without (AF group, n=138) and with non-hemorrhagic stroke (AF with stroke group, n=138) using computed tomography.
Results: The LA, LA appendage (LAA), and all PVs were larger in the AF than control patients. The orifice areas of the LAA (5.6±2.2 cm2 vs. 4.7±1.7 cm2, p<0.001), left superior PV (3.8±1.5 cm2 vs. 3.4±1.2 cm2, p=0.019), and inferior PV (2.3±1.0 cm2 vs. 1.8±0.7 cm2, p<0.001) were larger in the AF with stroke than in the AF only group. However, right PVs were not different between the two groups. In a multivariate analysis, the orifice areas of the left superior PV [odds ratio (OR) 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03–1.51, p=0.02], left inferior PV (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.41–2.75, p<0.001), and LAA (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.13–1.50, p<0.001) were independent predictors of stroke.
Conclusion: Compared to the right PVs, the left PVs and LAA exhibited more significant enlargement in patients with AF and stroke than in patients with AF only. This finding suggests that the remodeling of left-sided LA structures might be related to stroke.
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