Background HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) can occur in patients without prior AIDS defining illness and can be debilitating. This study aimed to evaluate the difference in the patterns of intrinsic brain activity between patients with or without HAND for deepening our understanding of HAND. Methods We evaluated 24 HIV-infected individuals, 12 with previously diagnosed HAND and 12 previously diagnosed without HAND, and 11 seronegative individuals. These individuals then underwent repeat NP testing and a functional brain MRI scan. For functional MRI analysis, seed-based analysis with bilateral precuneus cortex seed was applied. Results Among the 12 individuals with previously diagnosed HAND, 3 showed improvement of their neurocognitive function and 1 was excluded for worsening liver disease. Among the 12 patients who previously had normal neurocognitive function, 2 showed neurocognitive impairment. Overall, the HAND group, who had impaired cognitive function at the time of MRI scan, showed significant decrease of resting status functional connectivity between bilateral precuneus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) compared with nonHAND group, those who had normal neurocognitive function (Corrected P<0.05). The functional connectivity with the right inferior frontal operculum and right superior frontal gyrus was positively correlated with memory and learning ability. Conclusions This cross-sectional study found a significant difference in fMRI patterns between patients with and without HAND. Decreased functional connectivity between precuneus and PFC could be possible functional substrate for cognitive dysfunction in HIV patients, which should be characterized in a longitudinal study.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (NRF-2013R1A1A2005412), a Chronic Infectious Disease Cohort grant (4800-4859-304-260) from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, BioNano Health-Guard Research Center funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT, and Future Planning of Korea as a Global Frontier Project (Grant H-GUARD_2013M3A6B2078953) and a grant from the Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (grant number: HI14C1324). Dr. Smith was supported by the San Diego Veterans Affairs Healthcare system and NIH grants AI100665, MH062512 and AI036214.
© 2016 Ann et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)