The cube root of the energy dissipation rate (EDR), as a standard reporting metric of atmospheric turbulence, is estimated using 1gHz quick access recorder (QAR) data from Korean-based national air carriers with two different types of aircraft (Boeing 737 (B737) and Boeing 777 (B777)), archived for 12 months from January to December 2012. The EDRs are estimated using three wind components (zonal, meridional, and derived vertical wind) and the derived equivalent vertical gust (DEVG) of the 1gHz post-flight data by applying all possible EDR methods. Wind components are used to calculate three different EDRs, utilizing the second-order structure function, power spectral density, and von Kármán wind spectrum and maximum-likelihood method. In addition, two DEVG-based EDRs are calculated using the lognormal mapping technique and the predefined parabolic relationship between the observed EDR and DEVG. When the reliability of lower-rate (1gHz) data to estimate the EDR is examined using the higher-rate (20gHz) wind data obtained from a tall tower observatory, it is found that the 1gHz EDR can be underestimated (2.19g%-12.56g%) or overestimated (9.32g%-10.91g%). In this study, it is also found that the structure-function-based EDR shows lower uncertainty (2.19g%-8.14g%) than the energy spectrum-based EDRs (9.32g%-12.56g%) when the 1gHz datasets are used. The observed EDR estimates using 1gHz QAR data are examined in three strong turbulence cases that are relevant to clear-air turbulence (CAT), mountain wave turbulence (MWT), and convectively induced turbulence (CIT). The observed EDR estimates derived from three different wind components show different characteristics depending on potential sources of atmospheric turbulence at cruising altitudes, indicating good agreement with selected strong turbulence cases with respect to turbulence intensity and incident time. Zonal wind-based EDRs are stronger in the CAT case that is affected by synoptic-scale forcing such as upper-level jet/frontal system. In the CIT case, vertical wind-based EDRs are stronger, which is related to convectively induced gravity waves outside the cloud boundary. The MWT case has a peak of the EDR based on both the zonal and vertical winds, which can be related to the propagation of mountain waves and their subsequent breaking. It is also found that the CAT and MWT cases occurred by synoptic-scale forcing have longer variations in the observed EDRs before and after the turbulence incident, while the CIT case triggered by a mesoscale convective cell has an isolated peak of the EDR. Current results suggest that the 1gHz aircraft data can be an additional source of the EDR estimations contributing to expand more EDR information at the cruising altitudes in the world and that these data can be helpful to provide a better climatology of aviation turbulence and a situational awareness of cruising aircraft.
|Number of pages||22|
|Journal||Atmospheric Measurement Techniques|
|Publication status||Published - 2022 Apr 14|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Financial support. This work was funded by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program (grant no. KMI2020-01910). This research was also supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (grant no. NRF-2019R1I1A2A01060035).
Acknowledgements. The authors are grateful to four anonymous reviewers and editor for their invaluable comments and suggestions. This work was funded by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program (grant no. KMI2020-01910). This research was also supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (grant no. NRF-2019R1I1A2A01060035).
© 2022 Soo-Hyun Kim et al.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Atmospheric Science