Characterization of Choked Conditions Under Subsonic to Supersonic Flow in Single-Phase (Supercritical to Gaseous CO2 or Liquid H2O) and Multiphase (CO2 and H2O) Transport

Jong Gil Park, Weon Shik Han, Gidon Han, Jize Piao, Eungyu Park, Sanghoon Kwon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

In geologic media, fluids exist in gas, liquid, and supercritical phases, generating multiphase and multicomponent systems. As fluids migrating through geologic fractures reach the speed of sound, choked flow can be developed in microfractures. To elucidate such choked flow, thermodynamic analysis and numerical simulations were conducted with CO2, H2O, and CO2-H2O mixtures at various phases ranging from supercritical to gaseous CO2 and liquid H2O. Compressible CO2, with a relatively low speed of sound (~225 m/s at 31.1 °C and 7.38 MPa), demonstrated significant changes in thermodynamic properties with small pressure and temperature variations. In contrast, H2O, having a relatively high speed of sound (1,524 m/s), showed little thermodynamic variation. For CO2-H2O mixtures, a small addition of CO2 (or H2O) dramatically reduced the speed of sound relative to those for pure H2O or CO2. For an idealized converging-diverging microfracture with CO2 flow, choked flow and a shock wave were generated as outlet pressure was decreased to less than 6.8 MPa. The H2O flow did not generate choked flow at any outlet pressures. For CO2-H2O mixtures, choked flow was generated when the CO2 void fraction was greater than 0.7 with an outlet pressure of 6.5 MPa, indicating that presence of H2O inhibited occurrence of choked flow. Choked flow and shock waves can occur in various geologic environments including geologic CO2 sequestration, geothermal energy development, geysers, and volcano eruptions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3570-3587
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth
Volume124
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Apr

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choked flow
supersonic flow
Supersonic flow
Acoustic wave velocity
liquid
Liquids
liquids
Shock waves
outlets
Geysers
Thermodynamics
acoustics
Geothermal energy
Volcanoes
Fluids
Void fraction
shock waves
shock wave
geysers
Thermodynamic properties

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geophysics
  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

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title = "Characterization of Choked Conditions Under Subsonic to Supersonic Flow in Single-Phase (Supercritical to Gaseous CO2 or Liquid H2O) and Multiphase (CO2 and H2O) Transport",
abstract = "In geologic media, fluids exist in gas, liquid, and supercritical phases, generating multiphase and multicomponent systems. As fluids migrating through geologic fractures reach the speed of sound, choked flow can be developed in microfractures. To elucidate such choked flow, thermodynamic analysis and numerical simulations were conducted with CO2, H2O, and CO2-H2O mixtures at various phases ranging from supercritical to gaseous CO2 and liquid H2O. Compressible CO2, with a relatively low speed of sound (~225 m/s at 31.1 °C and 7.38 MPa), demonstrated significant changes in thermodynamic properties with small pressure and temperature variations. In contrast, H2O, having a relatively high speed of sound (1,524 m/s), showed little thermodynamic variation. For CO2-H2O mixtures, a small addition of CO2 (or H2O) dramatically reduced the speed of sound relative to those for pure H2O or CO2. For an idealized converging-diverging microfracture with CO2 flow, choked flow and a shock wave were generated as outlet pressure was decreased to less than 6.8 MPa. The H2O flow did not generate choked flow at any outlet pressures. For CO2-H2O mixtures, choked flow was generated when the CO2 void fraction was greater than 0.7 with an outlet pressure of 6.5 MPa, indicating that presence of H2O inhibited occurrence of choked flow. Choked flow and shock waves can occur in various geologic environments including geologic CO2 sequestration, geothermal energy development, geysers, and volcano eruptions.",
author = "Park, {Jong Gil} and Han, {Weon Shik} and Gidon Han and Jize Piao and Eungyu Park and Sanghoon Kwon",
year = "2019",
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T1 - Characterization of Choked Conditions Under Subsonic to Supersonic Flow in Single-Phase (Supercritical to Gaseous CO2 or Liquid H2O) and Multiphase (CO2 and H2O) Transport

AU - Park, Jong Gil

AU - Han, Weon Shik

AU - Han, Gidon

AU - Piao, Jize

AU - Park, Eungyu

AU - Kwon, Sanghoon

PY - 2019/4

Y1 - 2019/4

N2 - In geologic media, fluids exist in gas, liquid, and supercritical phases, generating multiphase and multicomponent systems. As fluids migrating through geologic fractures reach the speed of sound, choked flow can be developed in microfractures. To elucidate such choked flow, thermodynamic analysis and numerical simulations were conducted with CO2, H2O, and CO2-H2O mixtures at various phases ranging from supercritical to gaseous CO2 and liquid H2O. Compressible CO2, with a relatively low speed of sound (~225 m/s at 31.1 °C and 7.38 MPa), demonstrated significant changes in thermodynamic properties with small pressure and temperature variations. In contrast, H2O, having a relatively high speed of sound (1,524 m/s), showed little thermodynamic variation. For CO2-H2O mixtures, a small addition of CO2 (or H2O) dramatically reduced the speed of sound relative to those for pure H2O or CO2. For an idealized converging-diverging microfracture with CO2 flow, choked flow and a shock wave were generated as outlet pressure was decreased to less than 6.8 MPa. The H2O flow did not generate choked flow at any outlet pressures. For CO2-H2O mixtures, choked flow was generated when the CO2 void fraction was greater than 0.7 with an outlet pressure of 6.5 MPa, indicating that presence of H2O inhibited occurrence of choked flow. Choked flow and shock waves can occur in various geologic environments including geologic CO2 sequestration, geothermal energy development, geysers, and volcano eruptions.

AB - In geologic media, fluids exist in gas, liquid, and supercritical phases, generating multiphase and multicomponent systems. As fluids migrating through geologic fractures reach the speed of sound, choked flow can be developed in microfractures. To elucidate such choked flow, thermodynamic analysis and numerical simulations were conducted with CO2, H2O, and CO2-H2O mixtures at various phases ranging from supercritical to gaseous CO2 and liquid H2O. Compressible CO2, with a relatively low speed of sound (~225 m/s at 31.1 °C and 7.38 MPa), demonstrated significant changes in thermodynamic properties with small pressure and temperature variations. In contrast, H2O, having a relatively high speed of sound (1,524 m/s), showed little thermodynamic variation. For CO2-H2O mixtures, a small addition of CO2 (or H2O) dramatically reduced the speed of sound relative to those for pure H2O or CO2. For an idealized converging-diverging microfracture with CO2 flow, choked flow and a shock wave were generated as outlet pressure was decreased to less than 6.8 MPa. The H2O flow did not generate choked flow at any outlet pressures. For CO2-H2O mixtures, choked flow was generated when the CO2 void fraction was greater than 0.7 with an outlet pressure of 6.5 MPa, indicating that presence of H2O inhibited occurrence of choked flow. Choked flow and shock waves can occur in various geologic environments including geologic CO2 sequestration, geothermal energy development, geysers, and volcano eruptions.

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