Blending biodiesel–diesel blends with alternative fuels such as butanol and diethyl ether becomes an interesting area of research. Butanol is becoming a popular fuel due to its renewable nature and superior properties compared to ethanol. Diethyl ether can be considered as a renewable fuel as it can be produced from bioethanol through easy dehydration process. This paper aims to study the physicochemical properties of biodiesel produced from Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) and its blends with Euro diesel, butanol and diethyl ether. Furthermore, characterizations such as DSC, FT-IR, UV–Vis and TGA were also analyzed. Most of the properties of biodiesel satisfy EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 standards except iodine value and oxidation stability due to the high degree of unsaturation (128.549). Blending of hemp biodiesel with Euro diesel, butanol and diethyl ether improved the cold flow properties, kinematic viscosity and density. However, flash point decreased dramatically specially when blending with diethyl ether due to its low flash point. Therefore, care should be taken when handling or transporting biodiesel–diesel–diethyl ether blends. This work supports that blending Hemp methyl ester with Euro diesel, butanol and diethyl ether as ternary blends (up to 20%) can be considered as alternatives to fossil diesel in CI diesel engines. Therefore, it is recommended that engine, emissions and combustion characteristics of all blends shall be further investigated.
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Acknowledgements The authors would like to acknowledge Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey for the financial support under FOA-2015-5790 project and KİTAM, Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun, Turkey for Thermogravimetric analysis.
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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Engineering
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Waste Management and Disposal