OBJECTIVES: The modification of dental implant surface by increasing the surface roughness or/and altering chemical composition have been attempted. Among them, hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings are typically bioactive. On the other hand, titania coatings have good corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Therefore, the objective of this study was to fabricate HA containing a titania layer using an HA blasting and anodization method to benefit from the advantages of both, followed by surface characterization and biocompatibility.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: HA blasting was performed followed by microarc oxidation (MAO) using various applied voltages (100, 150, 200, 250 V). For surface characterization, the microstructure of the surface, surface phase and surface roughness were observed. Bonding strength was measured using a universal testing machine and potentiodynamic corrosion testing was performed. Biocompatibility was evaluated based on bioactivity and cell proliferation test.
RESULTS: The porous titanium oxide-containing HA was formed at 150 and 200 V. These surfaces were a lower corrosion current compared to the titanium treated only with HA blasting. In addition, composite treated titanium showed a rougher surface and tighter bonding strength compared to the titanium treated only with MAO. Biocompatibility demonstrated that HA/Titania composite layer on titanium showed a rapid HA precipitation and also enhanced cell proliferation.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that HA containing titania layer on titanium had not only excellent physicochemical, mechanical and electrochemical properties, but also improved bioactivity and biological properties that could be applied as material for a dental implant system.
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