Chemical interaction of alexidine and sodium hypochlorite

Hyeon Sik Kim, Qiang Zhu, Seung Ho Baek, Il Young Jung, Won Jun Son, Seok Woo Chang, Woocheol Lee, Yu Gu, Yoon Lee, Sung Tae Hong, Kwang Shik Bae, Ji Woong Kim, Kun Cho, Kee Yeon Kum

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Introduction: Recent studies have reported the color change and formation of precipitates containing para-chloroaniline (PCA) after a reaction of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine (CHX). Alexidine (ALX), a biguanide disinfectant similar to CHX, has greater affinity for bacterial virulence factors than CHX. This study determined by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) whether the chemical interaction between ALX and NaOCl results in PCA or precipitates. Methods: ESI-MS was performed on 4 different concentrations of ALX (1%, 0.5%, 0.25%, and 0.125%) with 4% NaOCl to detect the presence of PCA. As control groups, 1% ALX, 0.5% PCA, and a mixture of 2% CHX and 4% NaOCl were analyzed. The formation of precipitates on the dentinal surfaces of premolar root canals treated with the solutions of ALX and NaOCl (AN) or CHX and NaOCl (CN) was observed by SEM and the color change in the reaction solutions was also analyzed. Results: ESI-MS showed that the peak (mass/charge ratio = 128.026) in the PCA spectrum was not detected in any of the 4 AN solutions, whereas the peak was found in the CN solution. SEM revealed precipitates covering dentinal surfaces in the CN solution. The AN solutions produced no precipitate. The AN solutions changed in color from light yellow to transparent with decreasing ALX concentration, whereas peach-brown discoloration was observed in the CN solution. Conclusions: The interaction of ALX and NaOCl did not produce PCA or precipitates, and the color of the reacted solution changed transparent with decreasing ALX concentration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)112-116
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Endodontics
Volume38
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Jan 1

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Sodium Hypochlorite
Chlorhexidine
Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry
Color
Electron Scanning Microscopy
Biguanides
alexidine
Disinfectants
Dental Pulp Cavity
Bicuspid
Virulence Factors
4-chloroaniline
Control Groups

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Dentistry(all)

Cite this

Kim, H. S., Zhu, Q., Baek, S. H., Jung, I. Y., Son, W. J., Chang, S. W., ... Kum, K. Y. (2012). Chemical interaction of alexidine and sodium hypochlorite. Journal of Endodontics, 38(1), 112-116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2011.10.003
Kim, Hyeon Sik ; Zhu, Qiang ; Baek, Seung Ho ; Jung, Il Young ; Son, Won Jun ; Chang, Seok Woo ; Lee, Woocheol ; Gu, Yu ; Lee, Yoon ; Hong, Sung Tae ; Bae, Kwang Shik ; Kim, Ji Woong ; Cho, Kun ; Kum, Kee Yeon. / Chemical interaction of alexidine and sodium hypochlorite. In: Journal of Endodontics. 2012 ; Vol. 38, No. 1. pp. 112-116.
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title = "Chemical interaction of alexidine and sodium hypochlorite",
abstract = "Introduction: Recent studies have reported the color change and formation of precipitates containing para-chloroaniline (PCA) after a reaction of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine (CHX). Alexidine (ALX), a biguanide disinfectant similar to CHX, has greater affinity for bacterial virulence factors than CHX. This study determined by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) whether the chemical interaction between ALX and NaOCl results in PCA or precipitates. Methods: ESI-MS was performed on 4 different concentrations of ALX (1{\%}, 0.5{\%}, 0.25{\%}, and 0.125{\%}) with 4{\%} NaOCl to detect the presence of PCA. As control groups, 1{\%} ALX, 0.5{\%} PCA, and a mixture of 2{\%} CHX and 4{\%} NaOCl were analyzed. The formation of precipitates on the dentinal surfaces of premolar root canals treated with the solutions of ALX and NaOCl (AN) or CHX and NaOCl (CN) was observed by SEM and the color change in the reaction solutions was also analyzed. Results: ESI-MS showed that the peak (mass/charge ratio = 128.026) in the PCA spectrum was not detected in any of the 4 AN solutions, whereas the peak was found in the CN solution. SEM revealed precipitates covering dentinal surfaces in the CN solution. The AN solutions produced no precipitate. The AN solutions changed in color from light yellow to transparent with decreasing ALX concentration, whereas peach-brown discoloration was observed in the CN solution. Conclusions: The interaction of ALX and NaOCl did not produce PCA or precipitates, and the color of the reacted solution changed transparent with decreasing ALX concentration.",
author = "Kim, {Hyeon Sik} and Qiang Zhu and Baek, {Seung Ho} and Jung, {Il Young} and Son, {Won Jun} and Chang, {Seok Woo} and Woocheol Lee and Yu Gu and Yoon Lee and Hong, {Sung Tae} and Bae, {Kwang Shik} and Kim, {Ji Woong} and Kun Cho and Kum, {Kee Yeon}",
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Kim, HS, Zhu, Q, Baek, SH, Jung, IY, Son, WJ, Chang, SW, Lee, W, Gu, Y, Lee, Y, Hong, ST, Bae, KS, Kim, JW, Cho, K & Kum, KY 2012, 'Chemical interaction of alexidine and sodium hypochlorite', Journal of Endodontics, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 112-116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2011.10.003

Chemical interaction of alexidine and sodium hypochlorite. / Kim, Hyeon Sik; Zhu, Qiang; Baek, Seung Ho; Jung, Il Young; Son, Won Jun; Chang, Seok Woo; Lee, Woocheol; Gu, Yu; Lee, Yoon; Hong, Sung Tae; Bae, Kwang Shik; Kim, Ji Woong; Cho, Kun; Kum, Kee Yeon.

In: Journal of Endodontics, Vol. 38, No. 1, 01.01.2012, p. 112-116.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Chemical interaction of alexidine and sodium hypochlorite

AU - Kim, Hyeon Sik

AU - Zhu, Qiang

AU - Baek, Seung Ho

AU - Jung, Il Young

AU - Son, Won Jun

AU - Chang, Seok Woo

AU - Lee, Woocheol

AU - Gu, Yu

AU - Lee, Yoon

AU - Hong, Sung Tae

AU - Bae, Kwang Shik

AU - Kim, Ji Woong

AU - Cho, Kun

AU - Kum, Kee Yeon

PY - 2012/1/1

Y1 - 2012/1/1

N2 - Introduction: Recent studies have reported the color change and formation of precipitates containing para-chloroaniline (PCA) after a reaction of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine (CHX). Alexidine (ALX), a biguanide disinfectant similar to CHX, has greater affinity for bacterial virulence factors than CHX. This study determined by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) whether the chemical interaction between ALX and NaOCl results in PCA or precipitates. Methods: ESI-MS was performed on 4 different concentrations of ALX (1%, 0.5%, 0.25%, and 0.125%) with 4% NaOCl to detect the presence of PCA. As control groups, 1% ALX, 0.5% PCA, and a mixture of 2% CHX and 4% NaOCl were analyzed. The formation of precipitates on the dentinal surfaces of premolar root canals treated with the solutions of ALX and NaOCl (AN) or CHX and NaOCl (CN) was observed by SEM and the color change in the reaction solutions was also analyzed. Results: ESI-MS showed that the peak (mass/charge ratio = 128.026) in the PCA spectrum was not detected in any of the 4 AN solutions, whereas the peak was found in the CN solution. SEM revealed precipitates covering dentinal surfaces in the CN solution. The AN solutions produced no precipitate. The AN solutions changed in color from light yellow to transparent with decreasing ALX concentration, whereas peach-brown discoloration was observed in the CN solution. Conclusions: The interaction of ALX and NaOCl did not produce PCA or precipitates, and the color of the reacted solution changed transparent with decreasing ALX concentration.

AB - Introduction: Recent studies have reported the color change and formation of precipitates containing para-chloroaniline (PCA) after a reaction of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine (CHX). Alexidine (ALX), a biguanide disinfectant similar to CHX, has greater affinity for bacterial virulence factors than CHX. This study determined by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) whether the chemical interaction between ALX and NaOCl results in PCA or precipitates. Methods: ESI-MS was performed on 4 different concentrations of ALX (1%, 0.5%, 0.25%, and 0.125%) with 4% NaOCl to detect the presence of PCA. As control groups, 1% ALX, 0.5% PCA, and a mixture of 2% CHX and 4% NaOCl were analyzed. The formation of precipitates on the dentinal surfaces of premolar root canals treated with the solutions of ALX and NaOCl (AN) or CHX and NaOCl (CN) was observed by SEM and the color change in the reaction solutions was also analyzed. Results: ESI-MS showed that the peak (mass/charge ratio = 128.026) in the PCA spectrum was not detected in any of the 4 AN solutions, whereas the peak was found in the CN solution. SEM revealed precipitates covering dentinal surfaces in the CN solution. The AN solutions produced no precipitate. The AN solutions changed in color from light yellow to transparent with decreasing ALX concentration, whereas peach-brown discoloration was observed in the CN solution. Conclusions: The interaction of ALX and NaOCl did not produce PCA or precipitates, and the color of the reacted solution changed transparent with decreasing ALX concentration.

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Kim HS, Zhu Q, Baek SH, Jung IY, Son WJ, Chang SW et al. Chemical interaction of alexidine and sodium hypochlorite. Journal of Endodontics. 2012 Jan 1;38(1):112-116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2011.10.003