Chemically Reduced Graphene Oxide for the Assessment of Food Quality: How the Electrochemical Platform Should Be Tailored to the Application

Chu'Er Chng, Adriano Ambrosi, Chun Kiang Chua, Martin Pumera, Alessandra Bonanni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Graphene platforms have been drawing considerable attention in electrochemistry for the detection of various electroactive probes. Depending on the chemical composition and properties of the probe, graphene materials with diverse structural features may be required to achieve an optimal electrochemical performance. This work comprises a comparative study on three chemically modified graphenes, obtained from the same starting material and with different oxygen functionalities and structural defects (graphene oxide (GO), chemically reduced graphene oxide (CRGO), and thermally reduced graphene oxide (TRGO)) towards the electrochemical detection of quinine, an important flavoring agent present in tonic-based beverages. In general, the reduced graphenes, namely CRGO and TRGO, showed enhanced performance in terms of calibration sensitivity and selectivity, due to the improved heterogeneous electron-transfer rates on their surfaces. In particular, CRGO provided the best overall electrochemical performance, which can be attributed to its higher density of structural defects and reduced amount of oxygen functionalities. For this reason, CRGO was employed for the electrochemical detection of quinine in commercial tonic drink samples, showing high sensitivity and selectivity, and therefore representing a valid low-cost alternative to more complicated and time consuming traditional analytical methods.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1930-1936
Number of pages7
JournalChemistry - A European Journal
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Feb 3

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
A.B. acknowledges Nanyang Technological University for the financial support. M.P. acknowledges Tier 1 (RTG 1/99) from Ministry of Education, Singapore, for the funding.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Catalysis
  • Organic Chemistry


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