Materials with few layers have been subjected to extensive research for the last few decades owing to their remarkable properties as for example catalysts, optical and electrical devices, or sensors. The properties and electronic structure of these materials can be tailored by the introduction of substituents. In the case of more reactive species, the modification also can improve stability, which is also an important factor with respect to device fabrication. This review focuses on monoelemental layered materials of Group 15 elements (pnictogens) and in particular their modification, leading to better ambient stability and/or different properties by covalent and non-covalent modifications. The future modification and application of pnictogens are outlined.
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