Few studies have researched the gender-specific effects of electronic nicotine delivery systems on the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and/or its risk factors (central obesity, raised triglycerides, decreased HDL cholesterol, raised blood pressure, raised fasting plasma glucose). Thus, this study investigated the association between smoking behavior (cigarette type, smoking history) and MetS in a nationally representative sample of Korean men and women. Our study employed data for 5,462 cases of MetS and 12,194 controls from the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (KNHANES) for the years 2014 to 2017. Logistic regression analysis was employed to determine the association between type of cigarette (non-smoker, ex-smoker, and current smoker—conventional only, current smoker—conventional and electronic) and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its risk factors. Smoking history was clinically quantified by pack-year. No association between cigarette type and MetS was found for men. For women, relative to non-smokers, smokers of conventional cigarettes (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.02–3.18) and both conventional and electronic cigarettes (OR 4.02, 95% CI 1.48–10.93) had increased odds of MetS. While there was no association between smoking history and MetS for women, for men, conventional smoking history was associated with MetS for individuals with a smoking history of > 25 pack-years (> 25 to ≤ 37.5 OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.04–2.02; > 37.5 to ≤ 50 OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.08–2.18; > 50 OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.07–2.27). Sex differences were found in the association between smoking behavior and MetS. Such findings reveal sociodemographic differences that should be considered for interventions regarding conventional and/or e-cigarette users at risk of metabolic complications.
|Publication status||Published - 2020 Dec 1|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by a faculty research grant of Yonsei University College of Medicine (6-2018-0174 and 6-2017-0157).
© 2020, The Author(s).
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