Class D β-lactamases

Eun Jeong Yoon, Seok Hoon Jeong

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Class D β-lactamases are composed of 14 families and the majority of the member enzymes are included in the OXA family. The genes for class D β-lactamases are frequently identified in the chromosome as an intrinsic resistance determinant in environmental bacteria and a few of these are found in mobile genetic elements carried by clinically significant pathogens. The most dominant OXA family among class D β-lactamases is superheterogeneous and the family needs to have an updated scheme for grouping OXA subfamilies through phylogenetic analysis. The OXA enzymes, even the members within a subfamily, have a diverse spectrum of resistance. Such varied activity could be derived from their active sites, which are distinct from those of the other serine β-lactamases. Their substrate profile is determined according to the size and position of the P-, ω-and β5-β6 loops, assembling the active-site channel, which is very hydrophobic. Also, amino acid substitutions occurring in critical structures may alter the range of hydrolysed substrates and one subfamily could include members belonging to several functional groups. This review aims to describe the current class D β-lactamases including the functional groups, occurrence types (intrinsic or acquired) and substrate spectra and, focusing on the major OXA family, a new model for subfamily grouping will be presented.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)836-864
Number of pages29
JournalJournal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Apr 1

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmacology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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