Objective To describe the clinical and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) findings in patients with focal choroidal excavation (FCE). Design Retrospective case series. Participants Forty-one eyes of 38 patients with FCE identified in 2 tertiary medical centers in Korea. Methods Clinical features, SD-OCT findings, and associated macular disorders of FCE were analyzed and detailed. Main Outcome Measures Statistical associations among clinical features, including lesion type, size, and choroidal thickness, and frequency of association with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC), choroidal neovascularization (CNV), and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). Results Mean patient age was 50.1 years (range, 25-76 years). The mean spherical equivalent of refractive error was -3.7 diopters (range, -10.0 to +1.5 diopters). Three patients (8%) had bilateral lesions, and 1 patient (3%) had 2 distinct lesions in the same eye. The mean FCE width and depth were 757 μm and 107 μm, respectively, with a positive correlation between width and depth (P = 0.003). The mean subfoveal choroidal thickness of FCE eyes was 284 μm, which was not statistically different from that of age-, sex-, and refractive error-matched normal subjects. Choroidal thickness in FCE was less in eyes with hyperreflective choroidal tissue under the excavation that was present in 22 eyes (54%) versus eyes without excavation (128 vs. 190 μm, respectively; P = 0.009). Twelve FCEs (29%) were the nonconforming type, revealing separation between the photoreceptor tips and the retinal pigment epithelium on SD-OCT. Nonconforming FCE was associated with visual symptoms (P<0.001) and the presence of concurrent CSC (P = 0.001). Ten eyes (24%) were associated with CSC, and 9 eyes (22%) were associated with CNV, including 1 eye with PCV features. One eye with FCE and type 1 CNV developed a new excavation, and the excavated area in 1 eye with PCV enlarged slightly during follow-up. Conclusions Focal choroidal excavation is a relatively common entity and frequently associated with choroidal diseases, including CSC, CNV, and PCV. Although FCE is classically thought to be a congenital malformation, acquired FCE forms possibly exist.
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