Aims: To investigate the association of clinical and immunological markers with diabetes classification in newly diagnosed young diabetic patients at disease onset. Methods: Eighty-two diabetic patients recruited within 1 year of onset (mean age 23.0 ± 7.1, M:F = 46:36) were divided into three groups, namely: a low fasting C-peptide (FC) level at baseline group (the low FC group (n = 14, FC < 0.18 nmol/l)), an intermediate FC group (n = 29, 0.18 nmol/l ≤ FC < 0.37 nmol/l), and a high FC group (n = 39, 0.37 nmol/l ≤ FC). Patients were reclassified at follow-up (mean follow-up period 3.7 ± 1.4 years) in the same manner as described above into low FC group (n = 31), intermediate FC group (n = 20), and high FC group (n = 31). The clinical characteristics and prevalence of GADA were compared. Results: Patients in the high FC group at baseline had a higher body mass index (BMI), a higher frequency of a family history of diabetes, a higher meal-stimulated C-peptide increment, a lower frequency of ketonuria, a lower frequency of history of diabetic ketoacidosis, and a lower frequency of insulin therapy at diagnosis than those in the low and intermediate FC groups at baseline. Insulin secretory capacity, which was represented by fasting C-peptide, was affected by BMI at diagnosis and the presence of GADA. All the patients of the low FC group on follow-up were finally classified as having Type 1 diabetes; moreover, the factors that determined the type of diabetes were lower BMI at onset, GADA positivity, insulin therapy, lower fasting C-peptide level and lower meal-stimulated C-peptide increment at initial admission. Conclusions: Our study suggests that follow-up involving C-peptide and GADA measurements in combination with clinical characteristics is useful for discriminating between the types of diabetes in these groups.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism