Microneedles (MNs) are being developed to overcome the limitations of the conventional hypodermic needle, e.g. the injection pain. In this study, we conducted an analysis of clinical pain and bleeding at the site of MN insertion and evaluated the insulin pharmacodynamic profile compared with parameters obtained with a conventional pen needle. MN insertion into the skin of 25 healthy adults or 15 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) revealed significantly less pain relative to a conventional hypodermic pen needle, thus reducing pain scores from 2.1±1.9 to 1.3±1.4 (mean±standard deviation [SD]). Besides, no bleeding was observed when the MN was used. In the insulin pharmacodynamic assay, no significant differences were observed in the blood glucose-lowering effect between the pen needle and MN. Based on these results, the MN is expected to be a good substitute for conventional hypodermic pen needles and improve the quality of life of patients by significantly reducing the pain associated with insulin treatment.
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Acknowledgements This work was supported by the
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biomedical Engineering
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering