Purpose: These are the clinical experiences of Korean incidental prostate cancer patients detected by transurethral resection of the prostate according to initial treatment: active surveillance (AS), radical prostatectomy (RP) and hormone therapy (HT). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 156 incidental prostate cancer patients between 2001 and 2012. The clinicopathologic outcomes were reviewed and follow-up results were obtained. Results: Among 156 patients, 97 (62.2%) had T1a and 59 (37.8%) had T1b. Forty-six (29.5%) received AS, 67 (42.9%) underwent RP, 34 (21.8%) received HT, 4 (2.6%) received radiotherapy, and 5 (3.2%) chose watchful waiting. Of 46 patients on AS, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression occurred in 12 (26.1%) patients. Among them, 3 patients refused treatment despite PSA progression. Five patients, who underwent RP as an intervention, all had organ-confined Gleason score ≤6 disease. In 67 patients who underwent RP, 50 (74.6%) patients had insignificant prostate cancer and 8 (11.9%) patients showed unfavorable features. During follow-up, biochemical recurrence occurred in 2 patients. Among 34 patients who received HT, 3 (8.8%) patients had PSA progression. Among 156 patients, 6 patients died due to other causes during follow-up. There were no patients who died due to prostate cancer. Conclusion: The clinical outcomes of incidental prostate cancer were satisfactory regardless of the initial treatment. However, according to recent researches and guidelines, immediate definite therapy should be avoided without a careful assessment. We also believe that improved clinical staging is needed for these patients.
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