Immune checkpoint inhibitors have changed the paradigm of treatment options for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Monoclonal antibodies targeting programmed death-1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) have gained wide attention for their application, which has been shown to result in prolonged survival. Nevertheless, only a limited subset of patients show partial or complete response to PD-1 therapy, and patients who show a response eventually develop resistance to immunotherapy. This article aims to provide an overview of the mechanisms of acquired resistance to anti–PD-1/PD-L1 therapy from the perspective of tumor cells and the surrounding microenvironment. In addition, we address the potential therapeutic targets and ongoing clinical trials, focusing mainly on NSCLC.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grants funded by the Korean Government (MSIT) (NRF-2017M3A9E9072669, 2017M3A9E8029717, NRF-2019M3A9B6065231, 2019M3A9B6065221, 2018R1A2A1A05076997, 2017R1A5A1014560).
© The Korean Society for Molecular and Cellular Biology. All rights reserved.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology