To determine the suitability of serum endocan (ESM-1) levels for diagnosing and monitoring renal cell carcinoma (RCC), we measure serum ESM-1 levels in 56 RCC patients who had undergone radical or partial nephrectomies and 56 age- and sex-matched healthy kidney donors. Measurements were made before and 1 month and 3 months after surgery. The areas under the curve (AUCs) were determined from receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. RCC patients had higher mean serum ESM-1 levels than control subjects (0.59 ± 0.07 vs. 0.52 ± 0.08 ng/mL, P < 0.001), with an AUC of 0.721 (95% CI: 0.628-0.817). In patients with tumors larger than 2 cm (n = 40) and those with clear-cell histology (n = 44), the AUCs for ESM-1 were 0.771 and 0.721, respectively. In control subjects, serum ESM-1 levels were higher in older (> 50 years) individuals (P < 0.001). Among the study cohort, the AUCs for ESM-1 were 0.813 in individuals 50 years of age or younger (n = 55) and 0.637 in individuals older than 50 years (n = 57). In RCC patients, serum ESM-1 levels were reduced 1 month (P = 0.047) and 3 months (P = 0.009) after surgery. These results suggest serum ESM-1 can serve as a serologic biomarker for diagnosing and monitoring RCC, particularly in patients younger than 50 years.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes