C-reactive protein is a serum acute-phase reactant that increases several thousand-fold in concentration during inflammation in most mammals. However, mouse C-reactive protein is considered to be a minor acute-phase reactant, since its blood level increases only from approx. 0.1 to 1-2 μg/ml. A mouse genomic clone of ~ 5 kb was obtained to determine the molecular basis for the regulation of the expression of mouse C-reactive protein. Several cis-acting elements in the 5' flanking region that potentially regulate transcription were identified: two glucorticoid-responsive elements, two CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein C (C/EBP) consensus elements that are required for the interleukin-1 responsiveness of some acute-phase reactant genes, an interleukin-6-responsive element, two hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 (HNF-1) elements and a single heat-shock element. Transfection of the hepatoma cell line Hep 3B.2 with a pCAT expression vector containing the 5' flanking sequence from -1083 to -3 bp from the transcriptional start site, and truncations of this sequence, localized elements that control the tissue-specific expression of mouse C-reactive protein to the two HNF-1 elements and a C/EBP, interleukin-1-responsive element located between -220 and -153, and -90 and -50 bp from the transcriptional start site. A constitutive nuclear protein from mouse-liver hepatocytes specifically binds to the HNF-1 elements. These findings explain the tissue-specific expression of the gene, as well as its limited expression during the acute-phase response.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology