The advent of high-k/metal gates into production for CMOS gate stacks has marked the onset of MOSFET scaling that has clearly become reliant on new materials and / or new device architecture. Additionally, new approaches to form ultra-shallow junctions with high active-dopant concentrations and low schottky barrier height silicides with novel materials to reduce contact resistance have been reported by many groups and will continue to facilitate MOSFET scaling with increasing performance. It is becoming clear that Si (as the channel) may not be able to provide for the high performance combined with low power technologies that would be needed in future. Over several years, there has been a lot of research on high mobility channels: group IV for pMOSFETs and III-V for NMOSFETs. However, there appears to be little consensus on a) the choice of high mobility channels for P and N channel MOSFETs, b) its potential compared to short channel strained-Si, and 3) potential technology node for insertion. In this work, trends, challenges and opportunities related to several of the aforementioned modules (gate stack, junctions, contacts, and high mobility Ge based channels) will be briefly presented and discussed.