Scaling large-area solar cells is in high demand for the commercialization of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with a high power-conversion efficiency (PCE). However, few roll-to-roll-compatible deposition methods for the formation of highly oriented uniform perovskite films are reported. Herein, a facile cold antisolvent bathing approach compatible with large-area fabrication is introduced. The wet precursor films are submerged in a cold antisolvent bath at 0 °C, and the retarded nucleation and growth kinetics allow highly oriented perovskite to be grown along the  and  directions, perpendicular to the substrate. The high degree of the preferred crystal orientation benefits the effective charge extraction and reduces the amount of inter- and intra-grain defects inside the perovskite films, improving the PCE from 16.48% (ambient-bathed solar cell) to 18.50% (cold-bathed counterpart). The cold antisolvent bathing method is employed for the fabrication of large-area (8 × 10 cm2) PSCs with uniform photovoltaic device parameters, thereby verifying the scale-up capability of the method.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea grant (Grant No. 2012R1A3A2026417) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT.
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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Materials Science(all)