Background: The independent and combined effects of socioeconomic status (SES), viral hepatitis, and other lifestyle factors on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk have not been investigated among Koreans. Methods: From the National Cancer Center Hospital, 207 HCC cases and 828 age-and gender-matched controls aged 30 years or older were recruited. Socio-demographic and behavioural risk factors were ascertained through personal interview, and infection with hepatitis B and C viruses was determined by their serologic markers. Multivariate logistic regression and synergy index methods were applied for statistical analysis. Results: HB surface antigen (HbsAg) and anti-HCV-positive rates were 149.3 and 185.1 times higher in cases than controls, respectively. Lifetime alcohol consumption (odds ratio: 2.96, 95% CI: 1.29-6.79), cigarette smoking (OR: 3.53, 95% CI: 1.31-9.52), and family income (OR: 17.07, 95% CI: 4.27-68.25) were independently associated with the risk of HCC in subjects with or without viral hepatitis. Synergistic interaction on HCC risk was observed between low income and HBsAg positivity (SI: 3.12, 95% CI: 1.51-6.47) and between low income and heavy alcohol intake (SI: 2.93, 95% CI: 1.24-6.89).Conclusion:The inverse association with SES suggests SES as an independent and synergistic predictor of HCC. Heavy alcohol intake also showed a combined effect with low SES on HCC risk.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was funded by the Korea National Cancer Center (Grant nos. NCC-0410140, NCC-0610550, and NCC-0710141).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research