Combined effect of socioeconomic status, viral hepatitis, and lifestyles on hepatocelluar carcinoma risk in Korea

E. H. Yun, M. K. Lim, J. K. Oh, J. H. Park, A. Shin, J. Sung, E. C. Park

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26 Citations (Scopus)


Background: The independent and combined effects of socioeconomic status (SES), viral hepatitis, and other lifestyle factors on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk have not been investigated among Koreans. Methods: From the National Cancer Center Hospital, 207 HCC cases and 828 age-and gender-matched controls aged 30 years or older were recruited. Socio-demographic and behavioural risk factors were ascertained through personal interview, and infection with hepatitis B and C viruses was determined by their serologic markers. Multivariate logistic regression and synergy index methods were applied for statistical analysis. Results: HB surface antigen (HbsAg) and anti-HCV-positive rates were 149.3 and 185.1 times higher in cases than controls, respectively. Lifetime alcohol consumption (odds ratio: 2.96, 95% CI: 1.29-6.79), cigarette smoking (OR: 3.53, 95% CI: 1.31-9.52), and family income (OR: 17.07, 95% CI: 4.27-68.25) were independently associated with the risk of HCC in subjects with or without viral hepatitis. Synergistic interaction on HCC risk was observed between low income and HBsAg positivity (SI: 3.12, 95% CI: 1.51-6.47) and between low income and heavy alcohol intake (SI: 2.93, 95% CI: 1.24-6.89).Conclusion:The inverse association with SES suggests SES as an independent and synergistic predictor of HCC. Heavy alcohol intake also showed a combined effect with low SES on HCC risk.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)741-746
Number of pages6
JournalBritish journal of cancer
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2010 Aug

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was funded by the Korea National Cancer Center (Grant nos. NCC-0410140, NCC-0610550, and NCC-0710141).

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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