Purpose: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive type of brain tumor and has poor survival outcomes, even after a combination of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Temozolomide is the only agent that has been shown to be effective against GBM, suggesting that combination of temozolomide with other agents may be more effective. Niclosamide, an FDA approved anthelmintic agent, has shown anti-cancer effects against human colon, breast, prostate cancers as well as GBM. However, the efficacy of the combination of niclosamide with temozolomide against GBM tumorspheres (TSs) has not been determined. We hypothesized that the combined treatment could effectively suppress GBM TSs. Methods: GBM TSs (TS15-88, GSC11) were treated with niclosamide and/or temozolomide. Combined effects of two drugs were evaluated by measuring viability, neurosphere formation, and 3D-invasion in collagen matrix. Transcriptional profiles of GBM TS were analyzed using RNA sequencing. In vivo anticancer efficacy of combined drugs was tested in a mouse orthotopic xenograft model. Results: Combination treatment of niclosamide and temozolomide significantly inhibited the cell viability, stemness, and invasive properties of GBM TSs. This combined treatment significantly down-regulated the expression of epithelial mesenchymal transition-related markers, Zeb1, N-cadherin, and β-catenin. The combined treatment also significantly decreased tumor growth in orthotopic xenograft models. Conclusion: The combination of niclosamide and temozolomide effectively decreased the stemness and invasive properties of GBM TSs, suggesting that this regimen may be therapeutically effective in treating patients with GBM.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research