Combined effects of sulfamethazine and sulfamethoxazole on a freshwater microalga, Scenedesmus obliquus: toxicity, biodegradation, and metabolic fate

Jiu Qiang Xiong, Sun Joon Kim, Mayur B. Kurade, Sanjay Govindwar, Reda A.I. Abou-Shanab, Jung Rae Kim, Hyun Seog Roh, Moonis Ali Khan, Byong Hun Jeon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study investigated the environmental effects of two common emerging contaminants, sulfamethazine (SMZ) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX), and their mixture using a green microalga, Scenedesmus obliquus. The calculated EC 50 values of SMZ, SMX, and their mixture (11:1 wt/wt) after 96 h were 1.23, 0.12, and 0.89 mg L -1 , respectively. The toxicity of the mixture could be better predicted using a concentration addition model than an independent action model. The risk quotients of SMZ, SMX, and their mixture were >1 during the experiment, indicating their high potential risks on aquatic microorganisms. Despite their toxicity, S. obliquus exhibited 17.3% and 29.3% removal of 0.1 mg L -1 and 0.2 mg L -1 after 11 days of cultivation. The changes of SMZ and SMX removal were observed when combined, which showed a significantly improved removal of SMZ (up to 3.4 folds) with addition of SMX (0.2 mg L -1 ). The metabolic pathways of SMZ and SMX were proposed according to mass spectroscopic analysis, which showed six metabolites of SMX and seven intermediates of SMZ, formed as a result of ring cleavage, hydroxylation, methylation, nitrosation, and deamination.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)138-146
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019 May 15

Fingerprint

Sulfamethazine
Scenedesmus
Sulfamethoxazole
microalga
Biodegradation
Fresh Water
Toxicity
biodegradation
toxicity
methylation
environmental effect
Hydroxylation
cleavage
Methylation
Spectroscopic analysis
metabolite
Metabolites
microorganism
Microorganisms
fold

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

Xiong, Jiu Qiang ; Kim, Sun Joon ; Kurade, Mayur B. ; Govindwar, Sanjay ; Abou-Shanab, Reda A.I. ; Kim, Jung Rae ; Roh, Hyun Seog ; Khan, Moonis Ali ; Jeon, Byong Hun. / Combined effects of sulfamethazine and sulfamethoxazole on a freshwater microalga, Scenedesmus obliquus : toxicity, biodegradation, and metabolic fate. In: Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2019 ; pp. 138-146.
@article{19b8d6eedb6741e0b10442a70836b0d5,
title = "Combined effects of sulfamethazine and sulfamethoxazole on a freshwater microalga, Scenedesmus obliquus: toxicity, biodegradation, and metabolic fate",
abstract = "This study investigated the environmental effects of two common emerging contaminants, sulfamethazine (SMZ) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX), and their mixture using a green microalga, Scenedesmus obliquus. The calculated EC 50 values of SMZ, SMX, and their mixture (11:1 wt/wt) after 96 h were 1.23, 0.12, and 0.89 mg L -1 , respectively. The toxicity of the mixture could be better predicted using a concentration addition model than an independent action model. The risk quotients of SMZ, SMX, and their mixture were >1 during the experiment, indicating their high potential risks on aquatic microorganisms. Despite their toxicity, S. obliquus exhibited 17.3{\%} and 29.3{\%} removal of 0.1 mg L -1 and 0.2 mg L -1 after 11 days of cultivation. The changes of SMZ and SMX removal were observed when combined, which showed a significantly improved removal of SMZ (up to 3.4 folds) with addition of SMX (0.2 mg L -1 ). The metabolic pathways of SMZ and SMX were proposed according to mass spectroscopic analysis, which showed six metabolites of SMX and seven intermediates of SMZ, formed as a result of ring cleavage, hydroxylation, methylation, nitrosation, and deamination.",
author = "Xiong, {Jiu Qiang} and Kim, {Sun Joon} and Kurade, {Mayur B.} and Sanjay Govindwar and Abou-Shanab, {Reda A.I.} and Kim, {Jung Rae} and Roh, {Hyun Seog} and Khan, {Moonis Ali} and Jeon, {Byong Hun}",
year = "2019",
month = "5",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.07.049",
language = "English",
pages = "138--146",
journal = "Journal of Hazardous Materials",
issn = "0304-3894",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

Combined effects of sulfamethazine and sulfamethoxazole on a freshwater microalga, Scenedesmus obliquus : toxicity, biodegradation, and metabolic fate. / Xiong, Jiu Qiang; Kim, Sun Joon; Kurade, Mayur B.; Govindwar, Sanjay; Abou-Shanab, Reda A.I.; Kim, Jung Rae; Roh, Hyun Seog; Khan, Moonis Ali; Jeon, Byong Hun.

In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, 15.05.2019, p. 138-146.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Combined effects of sulfamethazine and sulfamethoxazole on a freshwater microalga, Scenedesmus obliquus

T2 - toxicity, biodegradation, and metabolic fate

AU - Xiong, Jiu Qiang

AU - Kim, Sun Joon

AU - Kurade, Mayur B.

AU - Govindwar, Sanjay

AU - Abou-Shanab, Reda A.I.

AU - Kim, Jung Rae

AU - Roh, Hyun Seog

AU - Khan, Moonis Ali

AU - Jeon, Byong Hun

PY - 2019/5/15

Y1 - 2019/5/15

N2 - This study investigated the environmental effects of two common emerging contaminants, sulfamethazine (SMZ) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX), and their mixture using a green microalga, Scenedesmus obliquus. The calculated EC 50 values of SMZ, SMX, and their mixture (11:1 wt/wt) after 96 h were 1.23, 0.12, and 0.89 mg L -1 , respectively. The toxicity of the mixture could be better predicted using a concentration addition model than an independent action model. The risk quotients of SMZ, SMX, and their mixture were >1 during the experiment, indicating their high potential risks on aquatic microorganisms. Despite their toxicity, S. obliquus exhibited 17.3% and 29.3% removal of 0.1 mg L -1 and 0.2 mg L -1 after 11 days of cultivation. The changes of SMZ and SMX removal were observed when combined, which showed a significantly improved removal of SMZ (up to 3.4 folds) with addition of SMX (0.2 mg L -1 ). The metabolic pathways of SMZ and SMX were proposed according to mass spectroscopic analysis, which showed six metabolites of SMX and seven intermediates of SMZ, formed as a result of ring cleavage, hydroxylation, methylation, nitrosation, and deamination.

AB - This study investigated the environmental effects of two common emerging contaminants, sulfamethazine (SMZ) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX), and their mixture using a green microalga, Scenedesmus obliquus. The calculated EC 50 values of SMZ, SMX, and their mixture (11:1 wt/wt) after 96 h were 1.23, 0.12, and 0.89 mg L -1 , respectively. The toxicity of the mixture could be better predicted using a concentration addition model than an independent action model. The risk quotients of SMZ, SMX, and their mixture were >1 during the experiment, indicating their high potential risks on aquatic microorganisms. Despite their toxicity, S. obliquus exhibited 17.3% and 29.3% removal of 0.1 mg L -1 and 0.2 mg L -1 after 11 days of cultivation. The changes of SMZ and SMX removal were observed when combined, which showed a significantly improved removal of SMZ (up to 3.4 folds) with addition of SMX (0.2 mg L -1 ). The metabolic pathways of SMZ and SMX were proposed according to mass spectroscopic analysis, which showed six metabolites of SMX and seven intermediates of SMZ, formed as a result of ring cleavage, hydroxylation, methylation, nitrosation, and deamination.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85050317256&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85050317256&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.07.049

DO - 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.07.049

M3 - Article

C2 - 30049519

AN - SCOPUS:85050317256

SP - 138

EP - 146

JO - Journal of Hazardous Materials

JF - Journal of Hazardous Materials

SN - 0304-3894

ER -