A recent survey looking toward the Milky Way bulge has discovered two sequences of RR Lyrae stars on the Period-amplitude diagram with a maximum period-shift of Δ log P ≈ 0.015 between the two populations. Here we show, from our synthetic horizontal-branch models, that this period-shift is most likely due to the small difference in helium abundance (ΔY = 0.012) between the first- and second-generation stars (G1 and G2), as is the case in our models for the inner halo globular clusters with similar metallicity ([Fe/H] ≈ ?1.1). We further show that the observed double red clump (RC) in the bulge is naturally reproduced when these models are extended to solar metallicity following ΔY/ΔZ ≈ 6 for G2, as would be expected from the chemical evolution models. Therefore, the two populations of RR Lyrae stars and the double RC observed in the bulge appear to be different manifestations of the same multiple population phenomenon in the metal-poor and metal-rich regimes, respectively.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank the referee for a number of helpful suggestions. Support for this work was provided by the National Research Foundation of Korea to the Center for Galaxy Evolution Research.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Space and Planetary Science