Background/Aims: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a common complication in patients with end-stage liver disease, but reports comparing community-acquired SBP (CA-SBP) with nosocomial SBP (N-SBP) are rare. This study compared the clinical characteristics, microbiological characteristics, and treatment outcomes of patients with CA-SBP and N-SBP. Methodology: Records for 248 patients (173 men, 75 women) with cirrhosis who experienced SBP were retrospectively reviewed. Results: The study population included 202 (81.5%) patients with CA-SBP and 46 (18.5%) patients with N-SBP. Patients with CA-SBP or N-SBP showed no significant differences in baseline or microbiological characteristics, except for a high frequency of previous SBP history in the N-SBP population (P=0.020). During hospitalization, antibiotic switching and in-hospital mortality were significantly higher for patients with N-SBP than CA-SBP (35.6% vs. 8.9%; P=0.001 and 30.4% vs. 12.9%; P=0.028). There were 202 (81.5%) deaths during the follow-up period, with longer overall survival time in patients with CA-SBP (7.9 vs. 3.9 months; P=0.041). However, time to recurrence was not significantly different between the two groups (4.7 vs. 3.6 months; P=0.910). Conclusions: N-SBP was significantly associated with increased antibiotic switching, higher inhospital mortality and shorter overall survival. Third-generation cephalosporin may be inappropriate as first-line empirical antibiotics for patients with N-SBP.
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