A safe alternative to the viral system used in gene therapy is a nonviral gene delivery system. Although polyethylenimine (PEI) and polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer are among the most promising gene-carrier candidates for efficient nonviral gene delivery, safety concerns regarding their toxicity remain. The aim of this study was to scrutinize the underlying mechanism of the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of PEI (25 kDa) and PAMAM (G4). To our knowledge, this is the first study to explore the genotoxic effect of polymeric gene carriers. To evaluate cell death by PEI and PAMAM, we performed propidium-iodide staining and lactate-dehydrogenase release assays. The genotoxicity of the polymers was measured by comet assay and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. PEI-and PAMAM-treated groups induced both necrotic and apoptotic cell death. In the comet assay and micronuclei formation, significant increases in DNA damage were observed in both treatments. We conclude that PEI and PAMAM dendrimer can induce not only a relatively weak apoptotic and a strong necrotic effect, but also a moderate genotoxic effect.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Korean Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology through the Brain Korea 21 program (2009).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
- Chemical Health and Safety