In hybrid supercapacitors, lithium-ion battery (LIB)-type intercalation materials have slower reaction kinetics than electrical double-layer-capacitor-type carbonaceous materials. Thus, it is of prime importance to improve the rate capability of LIB-type intercalation materials to achieve high energy density as well as high power density from hybrid supercapacitors. In this study, we report Li4Ti5O12/pristine multiwalled carbon nanotube (LTO/P-MWCNT) composites with high rate capability and demonstrate their anode application for high-power hybrid supercapacitors. For comparison, two additional LTO composites are prepared by using oxidized MWCNTs and surfactant-treated MWCNTs through a similar spray-drying process. The LTO/P-MWCNT composite shows superior rate capability over the other two composites, owing to the high electrical conductivity of pristine MWCNTs. The hybrid supercapacitor composed of a LTO/P-MWCNT anode and an activated carbon cathode delivers an energy density of 70.9 Wh kg−1 at a power density of 0.03 kW kg−1 and a maximum power density of 21.8 kW kg−1 is achieved at an energy density of 24.3 Wh kg−1. Furthermore, the hybrid supercapacitor exhibits excellent cycling stability. These salient results provide further impetus to the use of MWCNTs in the design and synthesis of high-rate oxide-based composites with efficient lithium-ion transport and high electrical conductivity for high-power hybrid supercapacitors and high-power LIBs.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea Government Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MOTIE) (No. 20162020107090) and the Industry Technology Development Program (10080540, Development of film-type flexible supercapacitors with microstructured electrodes based on nanomaterials) funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry&Energy (MOTIE, Korea).
This work was supported by an Energy Technology Development Project (ETDP) funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (No. 20172410100150), the Energy Efficiency & Resources of the
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