Blood pressure variability (BPV) has been shown to be independently associated with cardiovascular (CV) mortality and morbidity. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have also been shown to have increased BPV. We aimed to compare BPV in hypertensive patients with diabetes with those without diabetes. A total of 1443 hypertensive patients measured their blood pressure (BP) twice in the morning and twice before bed at home for a week. Demographic data, history of T2DM, and anti-hypertensive use were captured. Clinic BP was measured twice in the clinic. Control of BP was defined as clinic systolic BP (SBP) <140 mm Hg and home SBP < 135 mm Hg. BPV was based on home SBP measurements. A total of 362(25.1%) hypertensives had diabetes and 47.4% were male. Mean age was 62.3 ± 12.1 years. There was no difference in the mean clinic SBP in both groups (139.9 mm Hg vs 138.4 mm Hg P =.188). However, the mean morning home SBP was significantly higher and control rate lower in hypertensives with diabetes than those without (132.3 ± 15 mm Hg vs 129.7 ± 14.4 mm Hg P =.005, 39.4% vs 47.6% P =.007), respectively. Masked uncontrolled morning hypertension was higher in those with diabetes versus those without (12.8% vs 8.4%, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference in BPV between those with and without diabetes. In summary, clinic SBP was similar in hypertensives with or without diabetes. However, control of BP based on both clinic and home SBP thresholds was poorer in hypertensives with diabetes compared to those without. Masked uncontrolled morning hypertension was higher in those with diabetes than those without. There was no difference in BPV between the two groups.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
YC Chia has received honoraria and sponsorship to attend conferences and CME seminars from Abbott, Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, GlaxoSmithKline, Menarini, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Novartis, Orient Europharma, Pfizer, and Sanofi; and a research grant from Pfizer. K Kario received research grants from Omron Healthcare, Fukuda Denshi, A&D, Pfizer Japan, and honoraria from Omron Healthcare. S Park has received research grants and honoraria from Pfizer. S Siddique has received honoraria from Bayer, Novartis, Pfizer, ICI, and Servier; and travel, accommodation, and conference registration support from Atco Pharmaceutical, Highnoon Laboratories, Horizon Pharma, ICI, Pfizer and CCL. J Shin has received honoraria and sponsorship to attend seminars from Daiichi Sankyo, Takeda, Menarini, MSD, Bristol‐Myers Squibb, and Sanofi. CH Chen has served as an advisor or consultant for Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation; has served as a speaker or a member of a speakers bureau for AstraZeneca; Pfizer Inc; Bayer AG; Bristol‐Myers Squibb Company; Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc; Daiichi Sankyo, Inc; Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation; Servier; Merck & Co., Inc; Sanofi; TAKEDA Pharmaceuticals International; and has received grants for clinical research from Microlife Co., Ltd. J Nailes has received research grants from Pfizer, R Divinagracia has received honoraria as a member of speaker's bureaus for Bayer, Novartis, and Pfizer. J Sison has received honoraria from Pfizer, AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, and Novartis. GP Sogunuru has received a research grant related to hypertension monitoring and treatment from Pfizer. JC Tay has received advisory board and consultant honoraria from Pfizer. BW Teo has received honoraria for lectures and consulting fees from Astellas, AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Servier, MSD, and Novartis TD Wang has received honoraria from Abbott, AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Daiichi Sankyo, Eli Lilly, Medtronic, Menarini, Novartis, Omron, Pfizer, Sanofi, and Servier TD Wang has received honoraria from Abbott, AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Daiichi Sankyo, Eli Lilly, Medtronic, Menarini, Novartis, Omron, Pfizer, Sanofi, and Servier JG Wang has received research grants from Bayer, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Pfizer, and Phillips; and lecture and consulting fees from Bayer, Daiichi Sankyo, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Pfizer, Servier, and Takeda. Y Zhang has received research grants from Bayer, Novartis, and Shuanghe; and lecture fees from Bayer, Daiichi Sankyo, Novartis, Pfizer, Sanofi, Servier, and Takeda. . .
This study was supported by an Investigator Initiated Research grant from Pfizer. Omron Healthcare provided the use of computer servers to store study-related data. The protocol for the study was developed by Jichi Medical University School of Medicine. Pfizer was not involved in the development of the protocol nor this manuscript. All procedures were conducted in accordance with the ethical principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. The study was registered on the ClinicalTrials.gov website (NCT03096119). The authors acknowledge editorial support from Ayako Okura, editorial coordinator of Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, Japan. English language editing assistance was provided by Nicola Ryan, independent medical writer.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine