Purpose: Several strategies of prostate biopsy (PBx) have been introduced to improve prostate cancer (PCa) detection rates. However, studies comparing cancer detection rates (CDRs) according to biopsy methods in real-world practice are scarce. This study aimed to investigate CDRs according to the biopsy methods for patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <10.0 ng/mL. Materials and Methods: From 2006 to 2015, patients who underwent PBx were initially selected. All patients were categorized according to the biopsy methods performed (magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsy [MR-TBx], 12+2 hypoechoic lesion target biopsy, saturation biopsy [sPBx], extended biopsy, and 12-core PBx). The CDR of MR-TBx was compared to that of sPBx and other protocols. Volume per core (VPC) was defined as prostate volume divided by the number of biopsy cores. Patients previously diagnosed with PCa were excluded. Results: Of the 1,598 patients (median PSA, 5.41 ng/mL), 401 (25.1%) were diagnosed with PCa. Among the biopsy methods, MR-TBx has the highest CDR and proportion of Gleason score ≥7 (3+4). Biopsy methods, VPC, age, prostate volume, and PSA were associated with PCa detection. In the sub-analysis for initial biopsy, MR-TBx had no significant difference with sPBx, but had higher CDR than the other biopsy protocols. For repeat biopsy, VPC, rather than the biopsy method, was associated with CDR. Conclusions: This study reaffirmed the efficacy of MR-TBx on CDR in real-world practice. In cases with barriers to performing magnetic resonance imaging, VPC might be useful for adjusting the optimal number of biopsy cores in repeat biopsy.
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