Background: We investigated the usefulness of inflammatory markers including the delta neutrophil index (DNI), erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin as early predictors of sepsis in patients with acute prostatitis (AP). In addition, we evaluated the efficacy of intermittent catheterization for the initial management of acute urinary retention (AUR) in patients with AP. Materials and methods: All patients who presented to the emergency department and were admitted to the urology department from January 2011 to December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical features, prostate-specific antigen levels, inflammatory marker levels, and urine and blood culture results were obtained from medical records. Patients who underwent urethrocystoscopy or prostate biopsy within 7 days were excluded. Results: Of 132 patients (mean age, 64.8 years) in this cohort, 17 (12.9%) had sepsis and 22 (16.7%) had positive blood cultures. Escherichia coli was the most common isolate in blood and urine cultures. In multivariate analysis, the DNI and prostate-specific antigen were identified as predictors of sepsis. The DNI was a significant prognostic factor for bacteremia. In patients with AP, procalcitonin was not a significant predictor of sepsis. Of 19 patients with AUR, 10 needed Foley catheterization because of refractory AUR. C-reactive protein was a significant predictor of failure of the initial management of AUR. Conclusions: The DNI is useful as a predictive factor for sepsis and bacteremia in patients with AP. Without mandatory cystostomy, intermittent catheterization could be one of the useful management options of AUR in patients with AP.
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