Objectives: The purpose of this retrospective clinical study was to evaluate the effect of lesion types related to endodontic microsurgery on the clinical outcome. Materials and methods: Patients who underwent endodontic microsurgery between March 2001 and March 2014 with a postoperative follow-up period of at least 1 year were included in the study. Survival analyses were conducted to compare the clinical outcomes between isolated endodontic lesion group (endo group) and endodontic-periodontal combined lesion group (endo-perio group) and to evaluate other clinical variables. To reduce the effect of selection bias in this study, the estimated propensity scores were used to match the cases of the endo group with those of the endo-perio group. Results: Among the 414 eligible cases, the 83 cases in the endo-perio group were matched to 166 out of the 331 cases in the endo group based on propensity score matching (PSM). The cumulated success rates of the endo and endo-perio groups were 87.3 and 72.3%, respectively. The median success period of the endo-perio group was 12 years (95% CI: 5.507, 18.498). Lesion type was found to be significant according to both Log-rank test (P = 0.002) and Cox proportional hazard regression analysis (P = 0.001). Among the other clinical variables, sex (female or male), age, and tooth type (anterior, premolar, or molar) were determined to be significant in Cox regression analysis (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Endodontic-periodontal combined lesions had a negative effect on the clinical outcome based on an analysis that utilized PSM, a useful statistical matching method for observational studies. Clinical relevance: Lesion type is a significant predictor of the outcome of endodontic microsurgery.
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