Low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is the main target in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). We aimed to validate and compare a new LDL-C estimation equation with other well-known equations. 177,111 samples were analysed from two contemporary population-based cohorts comprising asymptomatic Korean adults who underwent medical examinations. Performances of the Friedewald (FLDL), Martin (MLDL), and Sampson (SLDL) equations in estimating direct LDL-C by homogenous assay were assessed by measures of concordance (R2, RMSE, and mean absolute difference). Analyses were performed according to various triglyceride (TG) and/or LDL-C strata. Secondary analyses were conducted within dyslipidaemia populations of each database. MLDL was superior or at least similar to other equations regardless of TG/LDL-C, in both the general and dyslipidaemia populations (RMSE = 11.45/9.20 mg/dL; R2 = 0.88/0.91; vs FLDL: RMSE = 13.66/10.42 mg/dL; R2 = 0.82/0.89; vs SLDL: RMSE = 12.36/9.39 mg/dL; R2 = 0.85/0.91, per Gangnam Severance Hospital Check-up/Korea Initiatives on Coronary Artery Calcification data). MLDL had a slight advantage over SLDL with the lowest MADs across the full spectrum of TG levels, whether divided into severe hyper/non-hyper to moderate hypertriglyceridaemia samples or stratified by 100-mg/dL TG intervals, even up to TG values of 500–600 mg/dL. MLDL may be a readily adoptable and cost-effective alternative to direct LDL-C measurement, irrespective of dyslipidaemia status. In populations with relatively high prevalence of mild-to-moderate hypertriglyceridaemia, Martin’s equation may be optimal for LDL-C and ASCVD risk estimation.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Technology Innovation Program (20002781, A Platform for Prediction and Management of Health Risk Based on Personal Big Data and Lifelogging) funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE), Korea and the Institute for Information & communications Technology Promotion (IITP) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (2019-31-1293, Autonomous digital companion framework and application).
© 2021, The Author(s).
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