Objective: This study compared three prominent midsagittal planes (MSPs) to identify the MSP that best approximates the true symmetrical MSP. Methods: Forty-three patients (mean age, 23.0 ± 8.20 years) were grouped as follows: group 1 consisted of 10 patients with skeletal Class I and a menton (Me) deviation of < 2 mm; group 2, 11 patients with skeletal Class III and a Me deviation < 2 mm; group 3, nine patients with skeletal Class III and a Me deviation of 2 to less than 4 mm; and group 4, 13 patients with skeletal Class III and an Me deviation ≥ 4 mm. The candidate MSPs were established by three-dimensional (3D) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) reorientation methods (RMs): (1) the MSP perpendicular to the Frankfort horizontal (FH) plane while passing through the crista galli and basion; (2) the MSP including the nasion, incisive foramen, and basion; (3) the MSP including the nasion, anterior nasal spine, and posterior nasal spine. The mean absolute distances (MADs) to the MSPs were calculated from the coordinates of 1,548 points on 129 CBCT images. The differences in the values of the 3D coordinates among RMs were compared. Results: The MADs of the three RMs showed significant differences (p < 0.05). Most of the differences in values of the coordinates were not significant among RMs. Conclusions: Although the differences in distance among the three MSPs were minor, the MSP perpendicular to the FH plane while passing through the crista galli and basion best approximated the true symmetrical MSP.
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