We tested the clinical utility of combined profiling of Ion Torrent PGM based next-generation sequencing (NGS) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for assignment to molecularly targeted therapies. A consecutive cohort of 93 patients with advanced/ metastatic GC who underwent palliative chemotherapy between March and December 2015 were prospectively enrolled. Formalin fixed paraffin embedded tumor biopsy specimens were subjected to a 10 GC panels [Epstein Barr virus encoding RNA in-situ hybridization, IHC for mismatch repair proteins (MMR; MLH1, PMS2, MSH2, and MSH6), receptor tyrosine kinases (HER2, EGFR, and MET), PTEN, and p53 protein], and a commercial targeted NGS panel of 52 genes (Oncomine Focus Assay). Treatment was based on availability of targeted agents at the time of molecular diagnosis. Among the 81 cases with available tumor samples, complete NGS and IHC profiles were successfully achieved in 66 cases (81.5%); only IHC results were available for 15 cases. Eight cases received matched therapy based on sequencing results; ERBB2 amplification, trastuzumab (n = 4); PIK3CA mutation, Akt inhibitor (n = 2); and FGFR2 amplification, FGFR2b inhibitor (n = 2). Eleven cases received matched therapy based on IHC; ERBB2 positivity, trastuzumab (n = 5); PTEN loss (n = 2), PI3Kβ inhibitor; MMR deficiency (n = 2), PD-1 inhibitor; and EGFR positivity (n = 2), pan-ERBB inhibitor. A total of 19 (23.5%) and 62 (76.5%) cases were treated with matched and non-matched therapy, respectively. Matched therapy had significantly higher overall response rate than non-matched therapy (55.6% vs 13.1%, P = 0.001). NGS and IHC markers provide complementary utility in identifying patients who may benefit from targeted therapies.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by a grant of the Korea Health Technology R&D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI), funded by the Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (grant number: HI13C2162, Soonmyung Paik), a grant from the National R&D Program for Cancer Control, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Republic of Korea (grant number: 1520190, Sun Young Rha), and a grant supported by the "Dongwha Holdings" Faculty Research Assistance Program of Yonsei University College of Medicine for 2015 (6-2015-0169, Hyo Song Kim).
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