Purpose: In line with the era of targeted therapy (TT), an increasing number of prognosticators are becoming available for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Here, potential prognosticators of cancer-specific survival (CSS) were identified based on the contemporary literature and were comprehensively validated in an independent cohort of patients treated for mRCC. Methods: Data were collected from 478 patients treated with TT for mRCC between January 1999 and July 2013 at a single institution. The analysis included 25 clinicopathological covariates that included both traditional and contemporary prognosticators. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to quantify the effect of covariates on CSS. Results: Median survival from the initial diagnosis of metastasis was 24.5 (IQR, 11.5–55.7) months. There were 303 (63.4 %) cancer-specific deaths, yielding a 2-year CSS rate of 62.5 %. Low Karnofsky performance status (KPS), hypercalcemia, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), the number of metastatic sites (≥2), and the presence of brain metastases were independent adverse prognosticators of CSS. The C-index of the model was 0.78. Patients with at least one adverse prognosticator demonstrated lower 2-year CSS rates compared to those with no prognosticators (53.9 vs. 70.6 %; log rank p < 0.001). Conclusions: Together with traditional prognosticators such as KPS, hypercalcemia, and the number and location of metastases, the NLR was an independent predictor of CSS in patients with mRCC treated with TT. Our findings could be useful for guiding clinical decision making including stratification of patients for TT and inclusion in clinical trials.
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