Background: The efficacy of antiarrhythmic drugs (AAD) can vary in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), and the PITX2 gene affects the responsiveness of AADs. We explored the virtual AAD (V-AAD) responses between wild-type and PITX2+/−-deficient AF conditions by realistic in silico AF modeling. Methods: We tested the V-AADs in AF modeling integrated with patients' 3D-computed tomography and 3D-electroanatomical mapping, acquired in 25 patients (68% male, 59.8 ± 9.8 years old, 32.0% paroxysmal type). The ion currents for the PITX2+/− deficiency and each AAD (amiodarone, sotalol, dronedarone, flecainide, and propafenone) were defined based on previous publications. Results: We compared the wild-type and PITX2+/− deficiency in terms of the action potential duration (APD90), conduction velocity (CV), maximal slope of restitution (Smax), and wave-dynamic parameters, such as the dominant frequency (DF), phase singularities (PS), and AF termination rates according to the V-AADs. The PITX2+/−-deficient model exhibited a shorter APD90 (p < 0.001), a lower Smax (p < 0.001), mean DF (p = 0.012), PS number (p < 0.001), and a longer AF cycle length (AFCL, p = 0.011). Five V-AADs changed the electrophysiology in a dose-dependent manner. AAD-induced AFCL lengthening (p < 0.001) and reductions in the CV (p = 0.033), peak DF (p < 0.001), and PS number (p < 0.001) were more significant in PITX2+/−-deficient than wild-type AF. PITX2+/−-deficient AF was easier to terminate with class IC AADs than the wild-type AF (p = 0.018). Conclusions: The computational modeling-guided AAD test was feasible for evaluating the efficacy of multiple AADs in patients with AF. AF wave-dynamic and electrophysiological characteristics are different among the PITX2-deficient and the wild-type genotype models.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank Mr. John Martin for his linguistic assistance. Funding. This work was supported by a grant (HI19C0114) from the Ministry of Health and Welfare. Additionally, the work was funded by grants (NRF-2019R1C1C100907512) and (NRF-2020R1A2B01001695) from the Basic Science Research Program run by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) under the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (MSIP). This work was supported by the Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University.
© Copyright © 2021 Hwang, Park, Kwon, Lim, Hong, Kim, Yu, Kim, Uhm, Joung, Lee and Pak.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physiology (medical)