Background: Little clinical data are available about the effect of food on the antiviral efficacy of entecavir for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The present study evaluated whether entecavir administration in the fed state had comparable efficacy to the fasted condition for maintenance of viral suppression in HBV-infected patients with virological response on entecavir therapy. Methods: In this multicenter, randomized, open-label, noninferiority study, patients who were currently receiving entecavir and showed a serum HBV DNA level of <20 IU/mL were randomized to take entecavir either under the fasted or fed condition for 48 weeks. Results: We randomly assigned 50 patients to the fasted group and 46 patients to the fed group. The full analysis set consisted of 49 patients in the fasted group and 44 patients in the fed group. At week 48, the proportion of patients with HBV DNA <20 IU/mL was not significantly different between the fasted and fed groups (98% vs 100%, P=1.00). The mean log 10 HBV DNA changes from baseline were similar between the two groups (-0.004 vs -0.012 log 10 IU/mL, P=0.43). There were no significant differences in the proportions of patients with normal alanine aminotransferase (87.8% vs 95.5%, P=0.27) and hepatitis B e-antigen seroconversion (0% vs 6.7%, P=0.47) between the two groups. None of the patients showed viral breakthrough. In pharmacokinetic analysis, the maximum concentration and the area under the concentration-time curve to the last quantifiable concentration decreased by 26.4% and 9.3%, respectively, in the fed group compared with the fasted group. However, the differences between two groups were not statistically significant (P=0.28 and 0.83, respectively). Conclusion: In patients with virological response under entecavir therapy, concomitant food intake did not affect the antiviral efficacy. For patients with adherence problem, taking entecavir with food may be considered to improve compliance.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pharmaceutical Science
- Drug Discovery